Aldrich, Henry; Smyth, Philip [Übers.]
The Elements Of Civil Architecture: According To Vitruvius And Other Ancients, And The Most Approved Practice Of Modern Authors, Especially Palladio — London, 1789 [Cicognara Nr. 395]

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CIVIL ARCHITECTURE. is

The shaft of a column, properly so called, is round ; when
the face is plain it is called a pilaster, and differs only in this
circumstance from the column ; in every other respedt it re«
sembles a column, and is subjedted to the same rules. It is
generally insected, but often insulated.

An order is the graceful symmetry of a pillar with its ad-
juncts, restrained by fixed bounds: symmetry is so called, I
apprehend, because it constitutes the order os columns; by
Vitruvius and others the symmetry is termed proportion or
kind.

To determine the exafit symmetry, the semidiameter of the
column is cut into 30 parts, and is called a module, whose parts
are minutes; the mensurations which consist of these are ex-
pressed, as in an astronomical calculation j for instance, 1:20'.
signifies 1 mod. 20 min. 3, 15. 3 mod. 15 min. 4 : 00. four
modules, 0:06. six minutes, and so of the rest. Wherefore the
column, and of course the module, may be encreased or dimi-
nished at the discretion os the architeCE The size of the mo-
dule being proposed, the whole symmetry of the entire Order
is likewise ascertained, as will be {hewn in its proper place.

PLATE IV.

§■. 2. Among the members of an Order, or the greater parts,
we may reckon the columnation and the entablature. Other
writers call those members, which we call parts of members,
and of which we have already treated. Among the parts the
smaller divistons or particles are worked by the tool of the
sculptor.

Some parts are siat, as the plinth A, which is a parallelepi-
ped, * and has the name and figure of a brick or rather a tile.
When placed on the capital of a pillar it is called an abacus,
and sometimes made with hollow sides as B. 2d, The fillet,

* Parrellelopiped (in geometry) is one of the regular bodies or solids compre-
hended under six redtangular and parallel sursaces, the opposite ones whereos are
equal. .

* B 2

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