Birch, Samuel   [Hrsg.]
Catalogue of the collection of Egyptian antiquities at Alnwick Castle — London, 1880

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Thk figures in this division relate to the civil life of the Egyptians,
consisting of sculptures in full, and bas-relief representing kings, public func-
tionaries and other individuals. These are principally of bronze, various kinds
of stone and wood, such objects rarely, if ever, and then only at a late period,
being made of fayence or porcelain. Glazed steatite was employed at an early
period. The statues of individuals, which are generally portraits of the deceased,
appear as early as the 3rd dynasty, and one figure in the collection belongs
to that remote period. The statuettes in bronze or other metals, or wood,
have the arms and legs attached to the body, and were cast over sand or leaden
cores. Those of stone were cut out of solid blocks, and although sometimes
represented completely carved, enveloped in drapery and seated, have generally
in other cases the parts between the legs and arms and body solid, and plinths
up the back, being in fact double bas-reliefs. The attitudes are compara-
tively few and architectonic. Standing figures have either their hands placed
close to their sides, flat with the palms inwards or clenched, holding rolls or
folded linen ; sometimes the right hand is raised to the breast holding a sceptre,
whip, or flower, and in case of mummied figures both hands are on the breast
crossing the figures outwards. Walking figures have always the left foot ad-
vanced, all figures are draped except children. The different seated attitudes
are entirely enveloped in drapery like mummies, seated on the haunches on the
ground with the legs crossed, kneeling on both knees holding shrines, altars
or tablets before them by both hands, or else seated on cubes, thrones or
chairs, where in single figures the arms are laid along the thighs, the hands
opened palms inwards and flat, sometimes holding a double sash or cloth. All
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