Cucurbita communis, Linn.; olives, grapes, Vitis vinifera, Linn.; of grain—wheat,
barley, and tares, the Cyperus esculentus, Linn.; lotus flowers, flowers of the
papyrus, Cyperus Papyrus, roots and leaves, branches and fibres of the palm.
Besides these, various liquids or their residua are found in bottles and vases
deposited in the tombs, probably the sediments of water, beer, wine, and other
liquids, such as milk, drunk by the Egyptians; while some of the unknown
liquids or balsams found in a viscous state in jars and bottles may be decom-
posed honey, conserves, and other matters, several of which still retain a sweet
smell, and examples of which are in the collection.
1429. Ten dates of the ordinary kind, the Phoenix dactylifera, often found
in the tombs; mentioned at the earliest times in the lists as an article of food
under the name of nebs.
1430. Six figs of the sycamore, Ficus Syconiorus, called by the Egyptians
mer, or neha. The fig was called Teb, and used at an early period for food.
1431. Barley, hot, a grain used for bread and beer, and often found in
1432. Corn, xu> f°und in the tombs, and also used for bread.
1433. Seeds of an unknown kind.
1434. Bowl containing fragments of bread. 6 in. diameter. Wood.
1435. Seven fragments of barley-bread. It is of barley, not corn, that most
of the bread found in the tombs appears to have been made. This is shown
by the husk, which is often seen ■ in the grain, having been only roughly bruised
or pounded. Not that the Egyptians were unacquainted with the art of grind-
ing or reducing grain to powder. Barley, called hot, was also converted into
malt, called hot tes'er, "red barley," and made into beer, a beverage much used
in ancient Egypt. Bread was made into circular and oval cakes or loaves, into
twists and other fanciful shapes; great quantities and varieties are mentioned
in the great papyrus of Barneses III., and it appears at the time of the
Ptolemies, from the inscription of San, or so-called decree of Canopus, in the
reign of Ptolemy Euergetes II. B.C. 238, to have been impressed with different
devices, like modern biscuits.
1436. Grapes, aver or alel. The cultivation of the vine was practised at
the earliest period in Egypt, persons of rank at the time of the 4th dynasty