using wine and Laving considerable vineyards as part of their estates. Grapes,
either ready for converting into wine or else for eating, are found in the
1437. Three dates of the doum palm, Hyphsene Thebaica, called by the
ancient Egyptians mama. Although this palm is not indigenous in Egypt proper,
and is not found higher north than Nubia, a great deal of the fruit appears
to be found in the Egyptian sepulchres, and the tree itself was cultivated in
Egyptian gardens by the wealthy or powerful Egyptians. It is mentioned in
an early inscription at Thebes1, and also in the Sallier Papyrus, I.2
1438. Six pomegranates, ermen or romen, Punica Granatum, a fruit also
eaten by the Egyptians. They are often found with other fruits in the tombs.
For the latest and most correct information regarding the vegetable remains
found in Egyptian tombs, see a paper by Alexander Braun, entitled, " On the
Vegetable Remains in the Egyptian Museum at Berlin," in the Zeitschrift fur
Ethnologic, Vol. ix., 1877. This paper has been translated by Dr Trimen, in
the Journal of Botany, 1879.
1 Brugsch, Eecueil, PI. xxxvi. In the list of trees of a garden, as follows: nelcat, Ficus Sycomorus, 00;
s'nab, Balanites JSgyptiaca, 31; benert, Phoenix Dactylifera, 170; mama, Hyphsene Cucifera, 130; neha en teb,
Ficus Carica, 5; xet en sen> Mimosa Nilotica; tag, uncertain, 2; arert, Vitis Vinifera, 12; anha, or neha men,
unknown, 5; keseb, unknown, 8; net em, Mandragora, 16; neb, Sycaminus, 5; tun, unknown, 5; mama en
XQnent, Hyphsene Argun, 1; xet sefi cut wood, unknown, 2; as'tu, Persea; ah, unknown; am, unknown, 5 ;
tert, Salix, 8; aser, Tamarix Africana, 10.
2 Select Papyri, PI. VIII., 1. 4,