Birch, Samuel   [Hrsg.]
Catalogue of the collection of Egyptian antiquities at Alnwick Castle — London, 1880

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The Egyptians used for walking or support the stick or wand, of various shapes,
generally nearly as high as the person who carried it, and often forked at one
end, persons of rank being often depicted seated, holding a long wand coloured
black, as if of ebony, and sometimes accompanied with bronze or other ferules.
Occasionally the wands were tied with leather straps. These sticks were called
ha or ab, and for purposes of ceremony a kind of bat-shaped stick called kherp
was in use. Besides these long sticks, smaller ones about three feet long,
called batana, probably for the inflicting of private or public punishment, were
also employed. The walking-sticks were often inscribed by the proprietors with
affectionate addresses as to the stay and support of their old age. The staves
carried in procession were surmounted by bronze figures of sacred animals and
other devices, representing, or alluding to, the deities in whose honour they were
carried. The offensive arms of the Egyptians consisted of the short sword or
dagger, bakasu or makasu, the war-axe, mateni, the mace or club, hut, the
bow, put, and arrow, sati, shemer. For defensive armour the Egyptians employed
the shield, long and of semi-oval shape, made of leather and bronze; a kind
of helmet, kh&perr, principally used by monarchs; and breastplates of quilted
linen ; leather straps and girdles were also in use, and at a later period bronze
scale armour. For the chase lighter bows and arrows were in use with flint

1439. Top of a staff or processional standard ; cat, mau, seated on a column,
its tail curled on its risrht side, with a kitten at its side. The column termi-

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