Birch, Samuel   [Hrsg.]
Catalogue of the collection of Egyptian antiquities at Alnwick Castle — London, 1880

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placed at the neck of the mummy of the deceased. The present material may
have been substituted at another time. -J- in. long. Red jasper.

1698. Object called mdanx, used as a kind of clasp or counterpoise of a collar,
and seen placed at the back of the god Ptah, in the scenes of the monuments,
ornamented with six bands. This appears to be one of the class of sepulchral
amulets placed on the necks of mummies, although no description or directions
for its employment are found in the Book of the Dead, or Ritual. It is
convex on one side, flat behind and rounded above, with a ring for suspension,
which, however, is not pierced, the specimens not having been completed when
deposited with the mummy. 1J in. high. Serpentine.

1699. Similar object, with six bands and a fringe represented at the lower
edge. 1^ in. high. Serpentine.

1700. Buckle, ta; object in shape of a tie or bow, made with two cords and
ends. This amulet was one of those ordered to be attached to the neck of a
mummy, and ordered to be made of red jasper, a material supposed to represent
the blood of Isis. In the rubrical directions of ch. 156 of the Ritual, which
refer to it, the amulet is said to have the virtue of enrolling the deceased
amongst the servants of Osiris, and of enabling the departed to pass the gates
of Hades and receive the food of the Aahlu, or Elysium1. The text of the
chapter is often inscribed upon these amulets, and in some cases instead of real
red jasper, imitation paste or opaque glass of the same colour is substituted for
jasper. In other cases a kind of red stone or composition was used for the same
purpose. They generally have a small ring above for suspension. 1^ in. high.
Red jasper.

1701. Similar buckle, ta, having in front two horizontal lines of hieroglyphs
indifferently engraved, as is usually the case with Egyptian engraving on hard
stone, the skill of their artists being chiefly exercised on the softer steatite,
They are

Ilesar ari en sqm Ani,

"The Osirian," or deceased, "Ani, guardian of the altar2,"

1 Zeitschrift filr dgyptische SpracJus, 1871, p, 14 and foil.

2 Pierret, Vocabulaire, p. 87.

GG 2
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