Birch, Samuel   [Hrsg.]
Catalogue of the collection of Egyptian antiquities at Alnwick Castle — London, 1880

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http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/alnwick1880/0375
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24. SEPULCHRAL VASES.

Part of the funereal fittings of the mummies was the four sepulchral vases
or canopi, as they have sometimes been called, on account of their resemblance
to the particular vase-shape of Osiris, called by the classical authors Canopus.
These vases were made in shape of the four genii of the Hades or Amenti,
the cover representing the head of the particular genius, and the vase or lower
portion being formed like the mummied body of the genius without the feet.
This portion of the vase was hollowed to receive a portion of the viscera,
generally wrapped up in bandages and soaked in bitumen. Rarely the heart has
been found deposited in these vases, and in a few cases viscera embalmed by
bitumen and without bandages have been discovered. Besides the four gods or
genii of the Amenti, as many goddesses, Isis, Nephthys, Neith, and Selk pro-
tected the vases. The materials of which the vases were made were Egyptian
alabaster or arragonite, calcareous stone, terra cotta, glazed fayence or porcelain,
and wood. Although some vases appear as old as the so-called Middle Empire,
they have been stated to commence with the New Empire or 18th dynasty,
and they continued till the close of the 26th dynasty; beautiful specimens of
this latter time existing in different collections. Occasionally solid vases or
dummies of wood were substituted for the more costly ones of alabaster, stone,
or porcelain. They are found in different places in the tombs.

1986. Sepulchral vase in shape of the god Kabhsenuf; the cover in shape of
the head of a hawk. The lower part adapted to receive the liver, wrapped in
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