Birch, Samuel   [Hrsg.]
Catalogue of the collection of Egyptian antiquities at Alnwick Castle — London, 1880

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http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/alnwick1880/0376
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SEPULCHRAL VASES.

329

linen bandages. The four gods, or, as they are generally called, genii of the
Karneter, or Hades, or Amenti, presided also over the four cardinal points of
the heaven, and perhaps symbolized the scattering of the viscera, considered
evil by the Egyptians, in these directions. The gods were the sons of Osiris,
probably by Isis, and as such junior or inferior to Har or Horus her first-
born ; other legends make them the sons of Horus. "When represented according
to their normal types Kabhsenuf has generally the head of a hawk, and the
liver was deposited in the vase made in this shape. Of the cardinal points he
presided over the East, and at the time of the royal coronations in the 19th
and 20th dynasty the pigeon, which symbolized him, was let loose to announce
to the gods of the East the fact of the king having assumed the crown. On
the present vase, however, the inscription states it to be that of Tuautmutf, the
third of the genii of the Karneter, in which the gall bladder was usually de-
posited. The viscera were not always placed in vases; sometimes they were
returned to the body, in which case they were mummied in packets and waxen
figures of the genii of the dead placed with them. Sepulchral vases appear to
have been in use at a very early period, and fine ones of this class came into
use at the time of the 19th dynasty. Under the 26th dynasty they are often
found made of the zoned alabaster, the quarries of which appear to have
been opened. The vases are sometimes plain, without any inscriptions, or have
one traced upon them in black ink, or else have one incised in hieroglyphs in
intaglio. These inscriptions differ considerably, comprising two or three different
formulae, as sometimes only the name of the one god or genius out of the four
to whom the vase was dedicated, or the usual sepulchral formula with the names
of the god and of the deceased, or else the speeches and declarations of the
genii. The usual formula, especially at the period of the 26th dynasty, when the
religious texts seem to have been reduced into a more regular expression, is
that of the speeches addressed by the goddesses Isis, Nephthys, Selk and Neith
to the deceased. The inscription on the present vase reads:

" Says Neith—I pass the morning and the night daily taking care of
Tuautmutf, who is in me protecting the Osirian captain of troops, Psametikua,
justified, protecting Tuautmutf. The Osiris, captain of troops, Psametikua, justi-
fied, is Tuautmutf." 1 ft. 4^ in. high, 8 in. wide. Arragonite or alabaster.
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