straj' Constantine, a Comniodus and a Faustina are the latest coins found in
the vallum forts, and the other forts agree. Numerous hoards give similar
evidence, and the conclusion is irresistible that the vallum, and indeed
all Scotland, must have been lost by the Eomans not very long after
it was established. Later Roman influence can be traced only at two periods,
(i.) Coins of Septimius Severus occur at and near Cramond and in four or five
hoards, all of which are noticeable as having been found north of the vallum.
It is quite credible that these may be in some way connected with the march
of Severus into Caledonia, but they do not prove settled occupation or even
the actual presence of Eomans. Very similar hoards of denarii not earlier
than Nero or later than Severus have been found in Germany and Denmark
far outside the limits of the Roman Empire. They show that these denarii
formed the current coin of free Germany in the third and early fourth
centuries (Mommsen-Blacas, iii. 121). It is quite conceivable that the same
may have been the case in Scotland, so far as coinage was used there at
that time, (ii.) And secondly, there are some though very slight indications
of a Roman advance from the Solway to Birrens in the early fourth
century. For the rest, our coin finds are consistent with the belief that
after the third quarter of the second century the Romans had little to do
Books cited by abbreviations :—
Arch. Scot., Archseologia Scotica, ii. (1S22), iii. (1831), and v. (1890).
Proa, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland (1855-97).
Sibbald, Historical Inquiries (Edinburgh, 1707-1739).
Smellie, Account of the Institution and Progress of the Society of Anti-
quaries of Scotland (1782-84).
0. 5. A., Old Statistical Account of Scotland, by Sir John Sinclair (1791-99).
N.S.A., New do. (1841-55).
Gordon, Itinerarium Septentrionale (1726).
Chalmers, Caledonia, vol. i. (London, 1807).
Stuart, Caledonia Romana, ed. ii. (Edinburgh, 1852).
Lindsay, View of the Coinage of Scotland (1845), with Supplement (1859).
1. —Coins found in or near Forts on the Vallum.
CARRIDEN, Vespasian: gold Sibbald,31; Gough'sCam-
den.iv. 56; Stuart, 362.
BARRHILL, Trajan, Hadrian, Pius: Stuart, 338.
AUCHINDAV Y, Trajan: gold Archasologia (London), iii.
118; Stuart, 328.
KIRKINTILLOCH, Domitian, Pius, Com- Stuart, 324.
modus, also Constan-
,, Nero, Titus, Domitian, Proc. xxviii. 276.
Trajan, Hadrian: silver