signs used in the earliest times, and the history of dress in Egypt.
Authentic materials for these subjects and all referring to arts and crafts
are extremely difficult to obtain from publications, although they abound in
Egypt. One object, though naturally it cannot be the main one, of the
Archasological Survey of Egypt connected with our Society, has been the
collection of these materials, and already some considerable results have
been obtained. The coloured drawings from Beni Hasan show well the
manufacture and use of flint knives, and a magnificent glass vase,
marbled blue and black, holds lotus flowers on the altar of Chnemhotep
II. Exact and full-sized copies showing the variation of form or style,
or the introduction of new instruments and conveniences, will lead to a
much desired result, for thus and thus only can be written the long
history of the development of arts and crafts in one of the most important
countries in the world.
In Arcliseohgia, vol. liii. pp. 83-94, Mr. Budge has published for the
Society of Antiquaries a number of bronze weapons from Egypt, several
being dated by cartouches.
The weights and measures used by the Ancient Egyptians have been
treated by the present writer in two papers (Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch., vols,
xiv. and xv.). The official systems were simple, but at different epochs
certain changes took place; and almost every stage in the argument
requires bulky proofs, It is needless to say that the subject will repay
further work, especially as new materials accumulate.
A Mathematical Papyrus from Ekhmim of about the seventh or eighth
century a.d., lias been published by M. Baillet in the Mission
Archeologique Franchise all Gaire, tome ix. It is remarkable that
although the influence of the Alexandrine School of Mathematics is
strongly visible in it, the book yet retains a broad substratum of ancient
Egyptian methods; it is written in the Greek language.
Dr. Schafer's studies on the Ebers Medical Papyrus in his Dissertation
and in the Zeitscltrift fur JEgyptische Sprache are an important contribu-
tion to the subject from the standpoint of the philologist.
Herr Ludwig Borchardt and Dr. Sethe have elaborated in the
Zeitschrift a theory that the pyramids were to a great extent restored
during the XXVIth dynasty. The idea is attractive, but must not be
accepted too hastily. The coffin of Menkaura, however, is shown con-
clusively by Dr. Sethe to be of late date.