by Teschendorf, but showing a distinct gnostic element in the remark-
able list of names of angels which it exhibits.
The most important additions made of late to Coptic literature are no
doubt the works of M. Amelineau, Dr. C. Schmidt and Professor Harnack
dealing with Egyptian Gnosticism. Since Schwartze's publication, some
forty years ago, of the Pistis Sophia, several scholars have treated of
the heresy of Valentinus, but for long no one ventured on the difficult
task of publishing the other valuable texts which were known to be pre-
served in the Bodleian Library at Oxford. M. Amelineau was the first to
undertake an edition of these papyri,3 brought home last century by
Bruce, the African traveller. The publication did not give entire satis-
faction, and was severely handled by Dr. Schmidt,9 who was himself
preparing an edition of the Codex Brucianus for the Texte und Unter-
suchungen.1" The importance of these documents lies chiefly in their
close connection with the system of the Pistis, whose peculiarities
of dialect they also share, some portions of the Oxford texts having
an even more decidedly Middle Egyptian character than the Pistis.
The literature of the latter book too has been greatly enriched by the
study of its contents made by Professor Harnack," whose opinion is that
the work emanates, not from the Valentinian, but from the Ophite
school, though he admits that the system displayed is an " Ophitismus
ohne Ophis." Professor Harnack also sees evidence that the Pistis is
a product of Syrian Gnosticism, although there can be no doubt that
the work, as we have it, was composed in Egypt.
Three more legal papyri from Jeme' have been published by Dr. Stein-
dorff,12—a deed of gift, a will, and a deed of sale, the last being yet
another document relating to the affairs of that family of Germanos
with which several others of these texts are concerned; it is written,
moreover, by the already well-known hand of Johannes Lazaros. Dr.
Steindorff has likewise printed13 an interesting letter from a bishop of
Hermopolis, menacing with the Church's wrath those who had taken
part in or connived at certain acts of burglary committed within his
As regards the language itself, a very elaborate and instructive study