ancient Arabian dynasties must one day throw new light on the com-
merce of Egypt.
Mr. Tomkins' paper on the North-Syrian localities named in the lists
of Thothmes III. has at length been issued by the Society of Biblical
Professor Sayce's Higher Criticism and the Monuments is a spirited
work of absorbing interest; Chapters IV. and V., on the Canaanitish and
Egyptian elements in the book of Genesis, aud on the Egyptian tutelage
of Israel, are those that chiefly concern us. A small relic of Hophra's
conquest of Phoenicia has been noted by the present writer.11
The evidence at present available for ascertaining the nationality of
the Hyksos and the conditions of their invasion and their expulsion, has
been ably discussed by Steindorff in Kleinere Beitrage zur Gescliielite,
Leipzig, 1894, pp. 1-9.
The history of the early settlements of the Greeks in Egypt, principally
from the seventh to the sixth century b.c. has been dealt with at great
length by M. Mallet : naturally, his work is founded principally on the
great discoveries made for our society by Professor Petrie at Naucratis
and Defeneh, and by Mr. Gardner at Naucratis ; but besides these, every
possible source of information has been laid under contribution.
We have here to chronicle an event of the first importance, the publi-
cation of Professor Erman's Egyptian Grammar.1'2 To those who have fol-
lowed the development of the subject in the Professor's previous writings
it is needless to say that the book has at once taken rank as the standard
guide for the practised reader, and, in spite of technicalities, as the most
convenient manual for the beginner. It summarises the results of
Erman's researches in this direction during twenty years. Never before,
excepting in the earlier and less complete treatises of the same author,
was the grammar of correctly written texts elaborated and recorded.
Henceforth the time-honoured work of Brugsch will only be con-
sulted for the debased writings of the Ptolemaic period, while De
Eouge's Ohrestomathie, and Eenouf's once admirable little book are
quite superseded. As a consequence of the publication of this Grammar
we may confidently hope for an immediate improvement in the general
standard of translation and the accession of many well-grounded scholars
to the ranks of Egyptology.
Steindorff's Coptic Grammar being published simultaneously with