foundation courses of masonry, and in the case of a building so long
occupied and so often ruined as the Cassareum. Begun by Cleopatra as
a monument to Antony, and finished and dedicated by Augustus,1 it
suffered at least four sackings and burnings at the hands of Christians,
pagans, and Moslems. There can be little enough surviving of the
splendours of the imperial fane, -which Philo painted in such glowing
terms for the edification of Caligula.
Any remains that may exist of the Emporium, the Apostases, the Buildings on
Navalia, the Heptastadium, the buildings on the Pliaros island or round the the ^ua^'-
Eunostus Harlow- (i.e. the present port), are either under the sea or
beneath occupied land.2 They cannot be explored, and are probably not
in the least worth exploring. As is well known, the present foreshore on
the west of the former Great Harbour and on the east of the Port, now
in use, is of modern formation, being conglomerated partly of silt, which
has been banked up naturally on both sides of the Heptastadium/' partly
by material thrown out recently in front of the Ramleh Boulevard. The
northernmost part of the Ras el Tin quarter stands on as much of tho
old Pharos island as the sea has spared: but the rest of that quarter,
with the whole of the Marina, is built upon new ground. The line of tho
ancient Quays runs off from the present foreshore on a level with the
western end of the Boulevard de Ramleh, and, cutting across the upper
end of the Place des Consuls, passes before the Hotel Abbat, and from
there runs to the Convent of the Franciscan Sisters.
Therefore we may reckon as out of our account altogether all north and
west of this line. The great Place des Consuls and all to the right and
loft and below it have no interest for the excavator; while immediately
above the Place, extending up to the alignment of the western part of tho
Boulevard de Rosette, lies now the Frank business quarter, closely built
over and, therefore, equally out of the sphere of practicable exploration.
In a triangular space, however, of which the Rue Cherif Pasha is the Minor
base, and the Boulevard de Ramleh makes one side, produced to meet the onume
Boulevard de Rosette, which is the other side—the Quarter of the Palaces,
already considered and condemned, being at the apex—there are some
spaces open still, but of small extent. No ancient building of import-
1 Suid. S. V. rijilcpyov.
- The twenty columns of porphyry found under the Antoniades mansion on the
Boulevard de Eamleh, 300 yards south-west of the site of tho Needles, are perhaps
survivals of the Apostases.
3 Strabo's words (p. 58) almost imply that even in his day the Heptastadium had
ceased to be a mole and become an isthmus.