Egypt Exploration Fund.
name is Socanobconneus, a form of the crocodile god Sebek, who was
also worshipped under the name of Socnopaeus in the neighbouring
temple of Dimeh.
6. A series of forty-two receipts, ranging from the reign of Titus to
that of Caracalla, recording the payment of octroi duties at Bacchias on
goods transported to or from Memphis by the desert road.
7. A series of fifteen tax-receipts found in the temple and belonging
to the reigns of Ptolemy Auletes and Berenice IV., which are of great
palaeographical interest, as no papyri of that period had hitherto been
Mr. A. S. Hunt, of Queen's College, Oxford, who joined us on
January 16th, rendered much service in the unrolling and deciphering
of these and other papyri.
The temple in the centre of the town proved, when we came to explore
it, to be an edifice less sumptuous than that at Karanis ; but it yielded,
besides its complete plan, much more in the way of papyrus-scraps and
small antiques. It had been partially plundered by a Greek dealer a
year or two before our arrival, and the innermost shrine, alas ! was found
by us already ransacked. It was reported to have yielded many terra-
cottas. The god of the temple has his name inscribed nowhere on the
building, the most part of which indeed is of massive brick-work; but
the papyrus petitions show hirn to have been called Socanobconneus. The
absence of foundation deposits (or our failure to find them) under this
temple, as under that of Karanis, precludes certainty as to the date of its
foundation ; but the period to which some of the papyri found within
the building belong, throws it at any rate back into Ptolemaic times.
It was not long before the papyri enlightened us as to the identity
of the site. The constant recurrence of the name Bacchias put it beyond
doubt that such was the title of the old town which had stood on Kum el
Katl. Now a certain Bacchis is placed by Ptolemy on the 29th parallel
and apparently in the Faiyum, and, being one of the very few place-
names recorded for this district by ancient authorities, it has been sought
up and down. Belzoni and others fixed it to Dimeh ; but when that site
was identified with Socnopaei Nesus, Bacchis was turned adrift again.
Now at last we may claim to have found its place.
The cemeteries of Bacchias proved less remunerative even than those
of Karanis. For although we found Ptolemaic graves, and among them
one absolutely virgin, they yielded no papyrus except some rotten
scraps from decayed mummy cases and head-pieces. The northern
desert was evidently searched with much diligence and success some