Egypt Exploration Fund   [Hrsg.]
Archaeological report: comprising the work of the Egypt Exploration Fund and the progress of egyptology during the year ... — 1895-1896

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Archaeology, Hieroglyphic Studies, Etc.


Foreign Relations.

Professor Sayce has found the Hyksos god Sufcekh named ou a
Babylonian seal in the Metropolitan Museum at New York, of " Uzi-
Sutakh, son of the Kassite, servant of Burna Buryas (c. 1400 b.c.)."
This indicates that the Hyksos were of Kassite origin. (Acad. Sept. 1895,
p. 189.)

The discovery of the name of " Israel " in an Egyptian inscription is,
in a sense, perhaps the most remarkable event of the year in archaBology.
It was first laid before the public by Professor Petrie in the Contem-
porary Review, May, 1896, and was treated by Spiegelberg in a com-
munication to the Berlin Academy (Sitzb. xxv. p. 593), and Steindoepp,
Zeit. f. d. Altiest. Wissenscltaft, 1896, p. 330. The name occurs in an
inscription dated in the Vth year of Merenptah, the successor of
Barneses II. and often supposed to be the Pharaoh of the Exodus. It is

there written (j(J w (j ^^<=^=> ^] ^ with the determinative of a

people, not of a city or country, and reads in our conventional translitera-
tion Tsirdar, but in reality agrees very closely to the Hebrew ^"iti^ the
last portion dar being recognized as the equivalent of El in several words.
Merenptah states that "Israel i&feht (?) without seed (grain or offspring),
Syria (Kharu) has become widows QcharUt) of or to Egypt/' At present
we can form no conclusion from these statements as to the relation
in which the Israelites stood to Pharaoh and to Egypt, except that
they are represented as having been powerless. It is pretty clear, how-
ever, from the context that they were then in Palestine, or at least in
Syria. Steindorff suggests that they may have entered Syria from
Chaldea during the disturbed times in Egypt at the end of the XVIIIth
Dynasty, and connects them with the movements of the Khabiri
(Hebrews ?) mentioned in the Tell el Amarna tablets. On the other hand,
it is of course possible, as Mr. Petrie points out, that this reference
to the Israelites may have some connection with the Exodus itself.
M. Clermont Ganneau considers that the localities mentioned in the
context are all in Southern Palestine (Rev. Arch. xxix. 127).

Tell el Amarna letters are treated—BoiSSiER, Froc. Soc. Bib. Arch.
xviii. p. 76, cf. Hommel, p. 17, and Delattre, p. 71. The name of " Bdl,
king of Dor," mentioned in the Golenischeff Papyrus, is read by Maspero,
Rec. dc Trav. xviii. p. 120, as " servant of El."

Daressy publishes a representation of Phoenician ships from a tomb
of the XVIIIth Dynasty at Thebes (Rev. Arch, xxvii. p. 286).
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