of the various problems shall be laid before the public. ... If the sins
of time past are not to leave a far-reaching legacy, specialists must make
an energetic assault upon the evil custom.'"
Wiedemann (Bee. de Tr. xx. 143) points out that the Arabic account
of a discovery of antiquities made in the reign of Bibars at Kous, seems
to prove that the find was a hoard of coins of the time of Gallienus.
Architecture, Sculpture, Painting, &c.
Borchardt's Aegyptische Pflanzensaiile is a short but pointed essay,
well illustrated and forming an excellent guide to the subject of the
columnar types in Egyptian architecture. There ought to be no more con-
fusion between the lotuses abundantly represented on the monuments and
the Nelumbium which occurs only at a very late period. The saparation
of the " Lily " ornament from the lotus ornament, of which it has usually
been considered only a development, is very valuable and important.
The curiously conventionalized papyrus is of course allowed its proper
weight as a decorative motif. The palm column is also illustrated, and
the rarer types of reed and convolvulus (?).
In conclusion, Borchardt explains the symbolic, so-called " Hathor,"
capita], which really represents a sistruin ; and the tent-pole column
already noticed by Petrie ; he points out how in accordance with the
important law of decoration first formulated by Maspero, the column iu
Egypt was generally treated as a growth from the ground, not a support
for a roof.
Foucart's Ordre lotiforme is reviewed by Naville (Sphinx, II. 18),
and by Pottier iu Gazette des Beaux Arts, 1897.
Borchardt, A. Z. xxxv. 87. Prof. Petrie's examination of the
pyramids of Gizeh was so thorough that since his work was published
practically no new word has been said on the subject from personal
examination of the monuments. Now, however, the clever architect and
Egyptologist Borchardt has visited them, and brought to bear certain
new ideas that have become current in the German school as represented
by himself and Sethe. He first shows that the " movable stone " that
closed the passage of the third pyramid was simply a flat slab fitting to
the sloping side of the pyramid, and not a carefully devised block,
pivoted and swinging on its own axis, as Petrie suggested. The same
device was used presumably for all the pyramids. Some years ago,
Borchardt endeavoured to prove that the pyramid of Khufu was not
originally planned for its present dimensions, but that there were clear