A.—EXCAVATIONS AT ABYDOS.
I. A Twelfth Dynasty Temple : Prehistoric Cemeteries.
The most important part of the work that fell to my share was the
excavation of a Xllth Dynasty temple ahout a mile and a half to the
south of Umm el Qa'ab. It was dated by a pair of red sandstone statues
inscribed with the cartouches of Usertesen III. Fragments of cartouches
with the name of this king were found in the rubbish, as also a broken
cartouche with the name of Amenemhat III. There was no indication of
any other period, either earlier or later, in the building of the temple, which
was no doubt destroyed not long after it was constructed, and used as a
quarry from which stone could be taken for the sumptuous erections of
The greater part of the plan could be traced from the brick walls, which
remained intact to an average height of about three or four feet.
The main entrance was on the eastern (river) side, to which access was
given by a sloping causeway. The central portion of the building occupied
about a third of the whole inner area, and had been paved with stone, of
which a considerable amount still remained. The remaining two-thirds
were taken up by elaborate series of chambers, fourteen on the south side
and fifteen on the north, most of which communicated with one another
by small doors. In several of these chambers stone bases were found in
position, with socketed holes for the reception of wooden pillars, and some
of them at least had been roofed with a star-patterned ceiling.
In the central area, the western side, where sanctuaries must have stood,
had been all destroyed, only the great blocks of the stone floor remaining.
The ground plan of the eastern side was however almost perfect, and
showed that in this part there had stood a fine fore-court of sixteen-sided
proto-Doric columns, fourteen in number. Seven stood on the north and
seven on the south side of the main entrance, making a front of eight
columns facing the entrance, with a depth of four.
Of the court which must have immediately followed this, nothing