interesting particulars about the construction and present condition of these
little known monuments. Following Sir N. Lockyer's suggestion, he
especially sought to obtain the precise orientations as a possible means of
dating by precessions. Dr. Budge propounds a theory that these pyramids
fall into three groups, the earliest of them dating from the age of the Xllth
Egyptian Dynasty, the second from b.c. 1200-700, and the third being
much later. Whether he has other reasons than the orientation in support
of this revolutionary theory does not appear.
Memoirs on Excavations.
Quibell and Petrie, Hieraeonpolis. The fourth memoir of the
Egyptian Eesearch Account contains forty-three plates of the objects
found in Quibell's excavations, with brief explanatory notes by Prof.
Petrie. The remainder of the plates, and the full descriptive text by
Quibell, will be issued in the next volume. These plates of the unique
and very remarkable antiquities discovered in 1897-8, are exceedingly
Petrie's memoir, Dendereh, is varied in contents as were its pre-
decessors. It contains inscriptions dating from the Old Kingdom, very
many from the period between that and the beginning of the Middle
Kingdom—the most important of these being texts of the Book of the
Dead on the coffin of Beb—; and there are also some demotic inscriptions.
The antiquities found, of various ages, are numerous and important, and
the memoir gives an interesting list of animals identified by Mr. Oldfield
Thomas from their remains found in certain catacombs. Dr. Gladstone
supplies a report on the metals, and on the metal of the bronze statue from
Petrie has already published the most important results of his last
season's work at Abydos in a memoir entitled The Royal Tombs of the First
Dynasty, Part I. Several other royal tombs remain to be examined after
Amclineau's excavations. The memoir contains all the material found by
Petrie relating to the early kings.
Daressy, Annales da Serv. des Ants. i. 17, describes the results of
excavations in 1897 at El Bersheh, in graves and tombs of the Middle
Kingdom, at the foot of the hill, at the top of the hill, and in the hill side.
The last were the most productive, yielding many funerary boats, &c.
Schafer, in A. Z. xxxvii. 1., prints a report on the first year's work on
the Old Kingdom temple to Ra at Abu Sir ; about one-third of the task
contemplated was then accomplished.' Nearly one-half of the platform had
been cleared, but the great heap of rubbish around the pyramid or obelisk-