Progress of Egyptology.
Petbe, which seems to have been, down to the fifth century, the Egyptian
equivalent for that of the god Kronos. Mr. Griffith has now shown43 that
(1) Kronos as a star was known in Egypt by the name of " The Avenger,"
and that (2) the Demotic word for " vengeance " is pethe, and has thus
solved an interesting etymological difficulty.
7. Miscellaneous. The keepers of the Leyden Museum, MM. Pleyte and
Boeser, are the first to issue a catalogue devoted exclusively to Coptic
antiquities.48 The publication comprises the objects in wood, ivory, metal
and embroidery, as well as the inscriptions on stone and ostraca—the texts
of which are given—and gives short descriptions of the MSS., all of which
were fully published in the Manuscrits coptes of the same authors. The
catalogue is excellently arranged, and prints several interesting texts for
the first time.
All the principal museums contain collections of Coptic ostraca. Those
belonging to M. Golunisheff have been recently edited and translated by
Dr. Turaeff.17 They number twenty-seven, and all come, as usual, from
Thebes. Several very interesting texts are among them,—the letter of
Christ to Abgar, extracts from homilies, lists of saints, legal documents, &c.
Some of the persons who write or are referred to recur on other similar
ostraca, and, as elsewhere, they appear to date from about the seventh century.
The latest addition to Coptic legal texts is another papyrus from Jeme,
in the possession of Lord Amherst. This document is a will, and is edited
by the present writer as an appendix to Mr. Newberry's publication.48
A good summary of the history, extant remains, and modern studies
in Coptic language and literature, has been given by Dom Eenaudin.19
The ultimate object with which the study of the language is recom-
mended is the Romanizing of the Egyptian Christians. This is to be
accomplished by the assistance of devout Prance.
Similar aims and the extent of their actual realization form the subject
of an instructive article which appears in the organ of the Propaganda.60
Its basis seems to be a missionary relation of 1898, and some statistical
tables giving the increase of Komanists in two Upper Egyptian dioceses
during the past two years. These tables show remarkable figures, which
we have no means of controlling. Whole villages are represented as
" converted" imanimously, while the local " schismatic" churches and
Protestant schools are deserted. There is little doubt that the native
church will make but a poor stand against the Roman organization, but it
would be interesting to have the commentary, for instance, of the strong-
Presbyterian mission at Siut upon the statements of anonymous articles
such as this.