Egypt Exploration Fund   [Hrsg.]
Archaeological report: comprising the work of the Egypt Exploration Fund and the progress of egyptology during the year ... — 1899-1900

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Progress of Egyptology.

recur there accompanied by the sign for copper, in connexion with the other
valuables. In these we must recognize a usual form of early ingot, such
as have been found in Sardinia and more recently in the Mycenaean bronze-
founders' hoard at Enkomi in Cyprus. On the clay tablets of Knossos this
representation is followed by the balance (the Greek ruXavjov) and cyphers
that seem to be indicative of the value of the copper ingots in Mycenaean
gold talents.

The clay tablets of the Palace of Knossos exhibit two independent forms
of writing—the hieroglyphic and the linear—neither of which betrays
anything more than an occasional resemblance to the Egyptian. Yet a
certain number of parallels may be established, to some of which, in the
case of the hieroglyphic series, I have already alluded in earlier papers on
the prae-Phoenician script of Crete. On the new materials a variety of

the Palace sign is specially frequent, and the so-called bee, or hornet,
also recurs. The presence of these signs on clay documents, relating to the
royal stores, certainly suggests at least the possibility that the meaning as
well as the sign may in these cases have been taken over. In a more
general way the analogy between the Cretan and Egyptian hieroglyphs is
very striking, and it seems probable that the evolution of this island script
in its conventionalized form was aided by a knowledge of the existence of
the highly-developed Egyptian system. It is an additional proof of the
intimate relations existing between Crete and Egypt under the XVIIIth
and XlXth Dynasties.

The linear documents, which form the great bulk of the Knossian series,
show a much more advanced method of writing, and the Egyptian parallels
are here less in evidence. A sign resembling the ankh ijl seems, however,

to point to direct borrowing, and so also does another resembling the
rectangle which holds the k-name of Egyptian kings. The system of
numeration, moreover, which I have now succeeded in elucidating, certainly
shows a close parallelism with the Egyptian. The system is decimal.
The units, consisting of upright strokes, are practically the same as the
Egyptian. The tens are generally horizontal lines, which, however, at
times show traces of curvature, suggesting an original derivation from
the curved Egyptian form. The hundreds are circles, the lines of which
are at times somewhat irregular and overlapping, thus recalling the
Egyptian coil, which has the same significance.

It is impossible here more than to allude to the very important bearing
of the existence of these early Cretan scripts on the question of the origin
of the Phoenician alphabet. Taking the theoretic pictorial originals of the
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