is interesting. The deeds contain several new words, and throw light on
the origin of Biblical Chaldee.
" Opposite Dishna, at the end of the Marashda canal, I found that a
cemetery of the Eoman period has lately been opened and plundered by
the natives. The tombs were constructed of large burnt bricks and the
coffins were partly of wood, partly of terra-cotta with terra-cotta lids."
For the following section we are indebted to Mr. Gr. A. Reisner:—
Work of the University of California at El-Ahaiwah and
" The expedition supported by Mrs. Hearst, in the name of the University
of California, began work at El-Ahaiwah, opposite Menshiyeh, May 21st,
and continued through the months of June, July and August, 1900.
Attention was kindly called to the place by an official of the Service des
Antiquifes (Sobhi Effendi), who informed us that an archaic cemetery was
being plundered by illicit excavators.
" The cemetery lies on a low sandy plain, separated from the river only
by a canal, and commanded on the south side by a mountain spur, around
whose base the river flows. On the mountain spur are the remains of a
large fort (Middle Empire ?) which has given us some interesting details—
buttress at the outside base of wall, stairways in the wall, etc. The slope
of this spur and that part of the plain next to the canal are covered with
the remains of a town, with houses whose walls are still in places one and
a half to two metres high. The main cemetery is an archaic one, contain-
ing about a thousand graves or more, of which about 700 had already
been plundered.. Between these plundered graves, about 250 were found
untouched in modern times. The graves yielded a good collection of
archaic pottery, pearl and ivory bracelets, hairpins; carnelian, garnet,
gold, blue glaze and other beads, etc. The only piece of general interest
was a figure of a fox cut out of slate, eyes inlaid with lead, length fifty cm.,
height twenty-five cm., workmanship fair. This was not used as a slate
palette, In addition to maps, plans and notes, a collection of photographs
was made, including a negative for almost every archaic grave containing a
" About this cemetery was a cemetery of the late New Empire, containing
a number of vaulted tombs built of unburned brick. These yielded a large
number of necklaces in the original order (one especially beautiful, of
red, blue and yellow glazed beads, caught at the throat by a panther's
head, the two ends hanging free and ending in lotus flowers). There
were also several fine pieces of faience and ivory, and other objects.