Egypt Exploration Fund   [Hrsg.]
Archaeological report: comprising the work of the Egypt Exploration Fund and the progress of egyptology during the year ... — 1900-1901

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Archaeology, Hieroglyphic Studies, Etc.




Spiegelberg, 0. L. Z. iv. 227, on place-names in the XlXth nome of
Lower Egypt, from inscriptions in the Amherst collection.

Grenfell and Hunt, in Faywm Towns and their Papyri, devote many
pages to a very important study of the ancient geography of the Faiyum.
Daressy, Bee. xxii. 137, gives the names of several towns in the Faiyum
of the time of the XYIIIth Dynasty. (Note also Salmon's Arab list of
place-names, below p. 84.)

Foreign Relations.

Among the most important finds made this year in Crete was an ^ ">
alabaster lid inscribed with the names of the Hyksos king, Khyan, =j f
found in the palace at Cnossus. By the kindness of Mr. A. J. I 0
Evans, I am able to give here a copy of the finely-cut inscription.
It consists of the prenomen and nomen of the king contained in a
single cartouche, Ntr vfr s.wsr-n-R1, s' _ftc, TBxfn "The good god
Susereura, son of the sun, Khyan." This inscription was found
beneath a Mykenaean wall and floor-level, and only three yards
from it lay a Babylonian cylinder of lapis lazuli mounted in gold.
The Mykenaean age is known to have been contemporary with
the XVHlth Dynasty. This find s evidently pre-Mykenaean.
That Khyan, of whom a statue was found at Bubastis (Naville,
Bubastis, pi. xii.), was a Hyksos seems now pretty well ascertained. \^ ^
A monument of his has been found at Gebelen in Upper Egypt,
so far implying that he ruled the whole country. His name is found
most frequently on scarabs and cylinders of a style which connects him
with a group of kings whose names are hitherto known to us only by
these little objects. The excavations of Mr. Mace and Mr. Garstang have
shown that this group of scarabs must be placed between the Xllth and
XVIIIth Dynasties. The names of several of the kings in the group,
including that of Khyan himself, are foreign and two of these sovereigns
bear, in addition to the ordinary Egyptian titles, the title of Hq-Jys.wt.
which Max Miiller with great probability considers the origin of the word
Hyksos. As to Khyan, Josephus has preserved from Manetho a Hyksos
name Iavtas or Iavva<; (XYth Dynasty), which has been compared with
this, but none of the other scarab-kings can be identified with names
in the Josephus list. Hitherto no name of an Egyptian king earlier than
Amenhotep III. had been found either in Greece or the islands of the
Mediterranean, at least with any probability of its being contemporary with
the deposit in which it occurs (see Hall, Oldest Civilization of Greece,
p. 50); but, as we have said, the cartouche of Khyan is associated at Cnossus
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