the Old Testament shows that the practice was universal in Egypt, and
of pre-historic antiquity; whether the Israelities adopted it from the
Egyptians is uncertain, and also unimportant, since it was not until a
late period, when they were scattered among other nations, that special
significance was attached to it, as a mark of distinction from the heathen.
Wendland confirms these conclusions from the references to the subject
in Hellenistic literature.
In the category of inscriptions an article by J. G-. Milne has to be
mentioned,19 containing the text of eleven Greek inscriptions, mainly in
the Gizek Museum, several of which are interesting for their bearing on
the amalgamation of Greek and Egyptian worships in Egypt; while M.
Foucart20 announces the discovery by M. Maspero, at Memphis, of a decree
(presumably Ptolemaic in date, though this is not stated) in honour of
Dorion, strategus of the Nome, by the Idumaeans settled there, and by the
corporation of the military police, to whom he had granted his protection.
Discussions of topics suggested by recent publications of papyri, as
distinct from the publications of new texts and simple descriptive
reviews of them, have been fairly numerous and interesting. As the result
of a re-examination of Berl. Pap. 140, Wilcken 21 is able to state that it is
a rescript of Hadrian, not of Trajan, and consequently proves that both the
Legio III. Cyrenaica and the Legio XXII. Deiotariana were in Egypt as
late as a.d. 119, at least ten years after the arrival of the Legio II. Traiana,
which has hitherto been supposed to have relieved one or other of them.
The rescript is addressed to the prefect Pihammius, and the apocryphal
Simmius may therefore disappear from the lists of prefects of Egypt.
A long study of the papyri from Karanis and Socnopaei Nesus, by Dr.
Wessely,22 with an elaborate index of the persons mentioned in them, is
already largely out of date, through no fault of the author, but through the
leisurely methods of publication which seem to find favour in the Austrian
capital. It is to be feared that the results of this compilation are hardly
commensurate with the labour which it must have involved. More valuable is
a contribution to the history of economics by an Italian lady, P. Salluzzi,23
who, following the excellent example of her compatriot, Prof. Lumbroso, has
instituted an examination of the evidence derivable from the papyri as to
the prices of commodities in Egypt in the Ptolemaic period. This is a
fruitful line of inquiry, which it is to be hoped will be followed up and
extended in the future. The veteran Lumbroso himself contributes a
note21 on a couple of phrases, which occur not uncommonly in the papyri,
relating to certain imposts upon land, and a discussion of a phrase in
Herodas. Municipal history is touched by an article for which the present