exported. To the south of these are the early Ptolemaic tombs in two
knolls which stand by themselves projecting to the west of the range. The
sides of these and the ridge behind were pitted with numerous rock-tombs
arranged in rows, while the eastern knoll and the ridge also contained
many shaft-graves on the summit, some of which appeared, judging by the
fragments of sarcophagi, to be of the Persian period. Few cemeteries have
been so systematically dug both in ancient and modern times as that of
Cynopolis; and we found little except in one tomb with three chambers, in
which was a considerable quantity of broken papyrus cartonnage and
several Ptah-Sokar-Osiris figures.
Pound the west side of the high fiat-topped hill at the extreme south-
east corner of the range were numerous burials of Osiris figures. These
were made of grain wrapped up in cloth and roughly shaped like an Osiris,
and placed inside a bricked-up recess at the side of the tomb, sometimes in
small pottery coffins, sometimes in wooden coffins in the form of a hawk-
mummy, sometimes without any coffins at all. Prom an inscription on
the temple of Dendereh (Brugsch, Aegypt. Zeitschr. 1881, 77) it appears
that these Osiris figures were buried at the ploughing season, and were
offerings to the corn-god; but the elaborate directions for ornamenting the
figures enjoined by the ritual of Dendereh were not carried out at Cynopolis.
Even these tombs had been much dug, the ground being strewn with frag-
ments of the pottery coffins; but in one tomb two Greek votive inscriptions
on limestone were found, of which we give the text:—
(2) 27 X 32 cm.
Two (?) lines effaced.
The rest effaced.
Probably the first inscription like the second belongs to the reign of
Vespasian, and all these Osiris tombs seem to have been of the late
Ptolemaic or early Roman period.
At the end of February we returned to Oxyrhynchus. We had always
known that, in spite of the enormous quantity of Roman and Byzantine
papyri which we found there in 1897, the site was far from exhausted,
and that in view of its extraordinary richness in classical and theological
fragments further excavations were desirable. But our desire to discover
(1) 21 X 23 cm.
fia 'Apftrj 'Apfie-
eir dyaBu) eh