Progkess of Egyptology.
3. Historical and Literary.—The recently facsimiled demotic papyrus of
Leyden (v. Report, 1899-1900, 21) has been completely translated by
Eeyillout (Rev. eyypt. x. 1). It is, however, his comments thereon8
which -we have here to notice. For he sees in the text the work of an
early convert, " secretly Christian." In the short ethical aphorisms of
which it consists he discerns references to monotheism and martyrdom.
Yet it must be observed that prayers occur, distinctly addressed to Osiris.
In a special report like the present, a work of the general importance
of Haenack's Missions and Spread of Christianity need not perhaps be
referred to. We cannot, however, but record the collection in it of a vast
amount of information relating to the growth and organization of the
Church in Egypt down to Constantino.9 H.'s preparatory investigations,
mainly statistical, are no less indispensable for students of this early period.
A section of Grutzmacher's account of Monasticism excellently describes
the origin and growth of its institutions in Egypt.10 We note that he
still puts the death of Pachomius in 345. Later Egyptian monasticism is
A paper by the late E. Lucius11 describes the virtues, trials, etc.,
of early monkish idealists in Egypt, as we see them in the narratives
of Eufinus, Palladius, the Apophthegmata, etc. Constant references to these
authorities are given throughout.
In his systematic description of the extant forms of Christianity, Looes 13
includes a good short account of the Coptic Church. Its actual condition
leads him to conclude that " a national rebirth of the Church is not to be
The article Monophysitcs by G. Keuger, in the new " Herzog," 13 gives
the best narrative hitherto attempted of the history of the sect, down to
the end of the sixth century. It includes a sketch of their theology and
a full bibliography. The Alexandrine patriarchal dates often differ from
von Gutschniid's, and the corrected figures are confirmed by the independent
investigations of Brooks.1311
To the same encyclopedia Crum contributes an article1* on the Coptic
Church, divided into sections on its history, constitution, liturgy,
monasticism, and literature.
K. Beth's journey (1901) in the Levant embraced Egypt, and an account
—by no means optimistic—of the Copts, their numbers, churches, liturgies,
is included in his view of the other oriental Christians.15
The most important contribution of the year to purely Egyptian history
in our period is the account of the Arab conquest by A. J. Butler,10 who,
since his Ancient Coptic Churches, has published nothing relating to