any marked change to indicate the advent of a distinct " Dynastic " race.
Garstang especially directs attention to the development of the stairway
tomb. His discovery of brick arches in the graves is remarkable. The
memoir, entitled Tombs of the Illrd Egyptian Dynasty at Reqaqnah and
Bet Khallaf, is profusely illustrated with excellent photographs, plans, and
drawings to illustrate the architectural features of the mastabas and tombs,
and the objects found (reviewed by Eandall-MacIver in Man, 1904,
"Weill reviews Amelixeau's Nouvdte* fouilles d'Abydus, 1896-7
in4to). Rev. Arch., iv. ser., i. 297, cf. ib. ii. ser. 354.
Beni Hasan. Garstang's excavations, Man, 1904, No. 67.
Tehxevi. Ahmed Bey Kamal describes the ruins of Tehneh with some
inscriptions and objects found by excavation, Ann. iv. 232.
Ehnasya. Petrie's excavations, Man, 1904, No. 77 (see above p. 12).
Dahshur. M. de Morgan has published a memoir on the brilliant
discoveries iu his excavations of 1894-5. They comprise mastabas of officials
connected with the court and the posthumous worship of Snefru; the
Pyramid of Amenemhat II. with the tombs of the ladies Ata and Chnemt,
containing a profusion of exquisite jewellery; also various mastabas
of that reign : the pyramid of Usertesen III. and a pyramid of Amenem-
hat III. M. de Morgan disputes the identification of the pyramid of
Hawara with the sepulchre of Amenemhat III. The volume is less
lavishly illustrated than the author's memoir on his previous finds at
Dahshur, but though coloured plates are conspicuously absent, the
photographs give a good idea of the beauty and importance of the jewellery.
Fondles a Dahchonr, 1894-1895.
Abcsir. Borchardt's report on last season's excavations for the German
Orient-Gesellschaft at the pyramid of Ne-user-ra (in no. 24 of the
Mittheilungeii der D. Or.-Ges.) gives the results of a very instructive
campaign. Beside lesser finds, the main results are the discovery of a
tower at each end of the east wall of the enclosure. They resemble pylon-
towers ; and as the entrance is between them in the same wall, it is suggested
that the pylon gateway may have originated in the drawing together of
such towers from the corners to the central gateway. Within the pyramid
the burial chamber was reached, but it is in such a ruinous condition,
owing to the extraction of roof-blocks in late times, that Borchardt did not
venture to clear it. A small pyramid of a queen was found at the S.E.
corner of the main pyramid. An accurate measurement of half of the east
side of the king's pyramid was obtained from the marks of the original
setting out, giving 150 cubits for the whole side. The measurement gives.