account of the methods of the Egyptian builders in brick and stone con-
struction, and in the moving and placing of heavy blocks and monuments.
Kecent excavations and restoration work in the temples have brought to
light much new evidence bearing on these points. M. Choisy has taken
advantage of this, and his book is epoch-making in the history of engi-
neering. It is reviewed by Dieulafoy in Compf.es Rendus 1904., 40. In
Aim. iv. 190 Colsox describes an ancient cold chisel obtained by M.
Choisy in Egypt, which consists of a hard nucleus within a softer envelope,
and analyzes the two kinds of bronze composing it. We may also refer
readers to the second chapter of Choisy's Eistoire de VArchitecture, pub-
lished in 1903.
Bissixg quotes a passage (already noted in Maspero's Eistoire) from an
old work of Zoega relating to the colossi, often mis-called pyramids, of
Biahmu, showing that a tradition existed of their having been statues.
Bee. de Trav. xxv. 183.
Borchardt explains the sculptured heads of prisoners projecting from
the facade of the entrance tower at Medinet Habu as having been a
bracket for a group of sculpture—e.g. Barneses III slaying an enemy.
A. Z. xl. 142.
LaCAO discusses representations of vases containing flowers in water
(correcting the account in Beni Hasan IV. to PI. xix., where opaque glass
was suspected), Bee. de Trav. xxv. 177, followed by an article of IilBSlNG,
figuring two many-mouthed flower vases of the Xllth Dynasty and one
of prehistoric age.
Some vears ago Borchardt wrote an article in which he endeavoured
to prove that the Egyptian artists in their drawings of vases contrived to
represent the designs of the interior decoration by figuring them as upright
on the edge. Borchardt's conclusions received general acceptance at the
time ; but now Schafer has written a short but amply illustrated and
very instructive treatise on the decorative vases figured upon the monu-
ments, and clearly shows that the designs in question were actually in
full relief on the edge of the vases, or in some cases upon the covers. The
representations are mostly of vessels in gold. Belonging properly to metal
work, this method of decoration was transferred to clay, and a few coarse
clay vessels survive exhibiting it. The style can be paralleled in pre-
historic work from other lands. Die Altaegyptisdien PrunJcgefdsse mil
avfgesetzten Randverzierunyen, forming the first part of Sethe's Unter-
suchungen, vol. iv.; reviewed by Wiedemann, 0. L. Z. 1904, 108.
Benedite publishes a bronze figure in the Louvre inlaid with silver,
representing a Libyan captive, probably from a group of a king sacrificing