transcription of a doubtful south-Semitic letter which is upheld by only
one scholar. The real difference between |1, (s), and (s), is unknown.
The former is not Z>: being the commoner sound in Egyptian it should be
represented by plain s: in the New Kingdom the two letters were inter-
changeable ; and s therefore will serve for both in general. The remaining
alphabetic letters will be discussed in the continuation of the article.
Prof. Naville puts forward a plea for making a fresh start in Egyptian
grammar, taking Egyptian as "the reflexion of a different quality of mind
from our own, and corresponding to a degree of linguistic evolution that we
have passed beyond." Bee. de Trav. xxvii. 44.
Prof. MAsrERO studies the traces of an Egyptian subjunctive and the
causative in (Coptic) T . . . . O. A tracers la vocalisation Egyptienne, in
Rec. de Trav. xxvii. 1. And further the Greek transcriptions of the name
Khety, ib. 13.
Prof. Loret raises once more the question whether the " vowel"
written at the end of many Egyptian words is not to be looked on as
representing the internal vocalization of the word. P. S. B. A. xxvi. 227,
Dr. Junker, who has undertaken the preparation of the Ptolemaic texts
for the Worterbuch, and to this end has read all the published inscriptions
from the temple of Denderah, writes an important essay on the differences
of orthography and language, sometimes very marked, which characterize
different classes of the texts and different parts of the temple. In the
course of the 120 years, from Ptolemy XIII onwards, during which the
temple was in building, the style, modelled on old Egyptian, of the
artificial language and spelling is shown to have changed considerably.
Whether a parallel change is to be found in other temples is a matter for
future investigation. The very important series of iive long continuous
texts regarding the preparation of Kyphi, prescribing ritual, &c, are in a
quite different style of composition from the rest. They are all strongly
tinged with the later language, and one of them is almost free from
archaisms. Sitzungsb. Btrl. Ah. 1905, 782.
Prof. Eeman reports considerable progress made with the Worterbuch.
The Ptolemaic and Eoman inscriptions prove a very valuable source.
" The priests of the latest periods in fact did preliminary work for the
task which we have set ourselves." By collecting rare words from the old
literature and employing them as synonyms of commoner words in "vain
repetitions," these priests have preserved the tradition of their meaning for
the modern student. Sitzb. Berl. Mad. 1905, 130.