unsolved. The party at work included three students; the excavations
were directed by Prof. Flinders Petrie, Rev. j. Gr. Duncan, and Mr.
Gilbart-Smith, while the drawing was done by Mrs. Petrie and Mr.
Butler-Stoney. The history of every point attacked was resolved ; and
the extent of work on six sites, and the amount of historical results, make
this one of the most important seasons of work.
"At Tell el Yahudiyeh the walling of the town was found to have been
at first an enormous bank of earth with sloping face, which later had a
great stone wall built around it. There was no gateway, the entrance
being by a long sloping roadway leading over the bank, which was more than
40 feet high. The objects found show that this was a great camp of the
Hyksos, and it agrees both with the description and position of Avaris.
It indicates that the Hyksos were archers, and a nomadic people coming
from an open country without timber. The graves of Hyksos age have
shown that they imported the black incised pottery and buff painted
pottery from Syria, and that there was a continual degradation during the
period. A reconstruction of the lists of the Hyksos kings thus becomes
possible from details of style and design. The Semitic source of this
people is shown by the early portrait of a lieq liluist or heq shas at Beni
Hasan, and by the Semitic names of the kings ; and we may recognize
in the history of Abraham, Ishmael and Esau the type of the Hyksos
culture in one of their later branches.
" At Tell el Retabeh the history of the city has been taken back to the
IXth Dynasty, and that the first fortification was built by Syrians is
shown by a child-sacrifice under the wall. On the top of 15 feet of
town ruins, Bamessu II. built his temple, in the ruins of which lay part
of a great stele and of a group of the king and Atmu carved in red granite.
These are the figures seen by the pilgrim Aetheria at the city of
Eaamses, between Pithom and Goshen. Half of the front of the temple
was also found with a complete scene of the king smiting a captive before
Atmu, now at Philadelphia. The Israelites seem to be mentioned here as
' foreigners of Syria ' over whom there was a governor resident here.
The rebuilding by Bamessu III. accords with the account in his papyrus
of the work at Baamses.
'• At Soft el Henna the cemetery of Goshen has been found, and 1500
graves have been recorded ranging from the XVIIIth Dynasty to Boinan
times. A large quantity of objects 'were found here.
" At Shaghambeh a fortified town was examined, and found to belong to
the XlXth Dynasty or earlier. It may well have been a fortress of the
Egyptians during the starving out of the Hyksos from Avaris. It was