excellent lithographic facsimiles of winch had already been edited by Prof.
Pleyte and Dr. Eoeser, by a volume of photographs (supplement to the
34th livr. of the Mons. da Musee d'Antiquites des Pays-Bas a Leyde).
M. Naville has written an interesting paper on the origin of the
Ancient Egyptians in the Rev. de Vffistoire des Religions, 1905. His
view is that "the followers of Horus " came into Egypt from Arabia,
through Massawa and Ethiopia, bringing with them some ideas and much
energy, and that these, as a ruling caste, developed the primitive African
civilization which they found there into what we know as the Egyptian.
The analogies in Babylonian culture are to be explained by its having
likewise a source in Arabia.
Lieblein is of opinion that the centre of Egyptian civilization was the
district extending from Heliopolis to Abydos : he would call the people
representing it the Heliopolitan people. North of them were Semitic
immigrants into the Delta worshipping Set, and south of them an
" Abydenian people" immigrant perhaps from the Pied Sea littoral.
P. S. B. A. xxviii. 29.
Newberry, seeking clues to establish the relationships of the civilizers
of Lower Egypt, points out that in the early form of the symbol of Neith
the shield is 8-shaped, like that of the Mykenaeans, Hittites, and early
Italians. P. S. B. A. xxviii. 68.
Legge doubts the identification of Aha with Menes. P. 8.B. A. xxviii.
Petrie criticizes Sethe's arrangement of the Abydos kings, and prefers
to retain his own until further evidence is forthcoming. P. S. P. A.
Gauthier points out the more decisive evidence in favour of Petrie's
and Sethe's identification of Semempses with the king whose Horus
name is Semerkhet. Bulletin iv. 229.
Amelineau finds titles in the old kingdom of priests of Qa-a and
of two other early kings, Kheper and Sekhem. Journ. As., X"" serie,
Gauthier suggests that the pyramid named Her under the IVth
Dynasty is that of Dadefre at Abu Koash. Bulletin iv. 236.
Sethe points out an error in Meyer's and Breasted's readings of the
fragments of the Turin Papyrus referring to the kings of the Xlth Dynasty :
this eliminated, the dynasty is seen to consist of six, not seven kings, and to
.have ended with Sankhkere. He publishes a new text, furnished by