of criminals, etc. Daring the IStli century the importance of mummy in
all its forms in European medicine waned, and before 1850 it was quite
obsolete. Wiedemann, Zeltsch. d. Vereins far Rheinische u. Westfalifche
Volhdcunde, 1906, 1.
(For the H-arst Medical Papyrus, see above, p. 34 )
The first volume of Ginzel's important Handbuchder Muthematiscke und
Technische Chronologic, intended as the modern equivalent of Ideler's
llandbuch of 1826, deals with the chronological systems of the Eastern
nations (excepting the Hebrews), together with Central America, etc. The
Egyptian section was found by the author to be the most troublesome of
all. It was originally founded on Brugsch's translations, but later was
largely re-cast with Prof. Schafer's aid, and is characterized by extreme
caution. The author expresses the wish that Brugsch's work may be
thoroughly revised by a specialist. This volume is complete in itself, with
Arithmetical tables written on stuccoed boards of the Xllth Dynasty.
Daressy, Bee. de Trav. xxviii. 62.
The K€pd/j.iov measure and the "divine cubit" in demotic texts.
Spiegelberg, llec. de Trav. xxviii. 187.
Borchardt has published a remarkable memoir on the ancient Kilo-
meters, illustrating especially those of Ptolemaic and Eoman age
from observations made chiefly in 1896, with new plans, photographs, and
copies of the inscriptions. On correlating the series it seems probable that
the most ancient Nilometer was at or near Rodah, and that a number of
others were established later at different points on the river in Upper and
Lower Egypt, the attempt being made to fix zero points throughout the
country to correspond with that at llodah. The standard of fall for this
purpose was probably' made by observation between Eodah and the sea, and
was carried uniformly through Upper Egypt in spite of the fact that the
fall was there more rapid. In Boman times a zero point was established
by experiment above the First Cataract, at Philae, and further points were
calculated from it southward throughout the Dodecaschoenus. Nilmesser
und Nilstandsmarken, from the appendix to the Abhandlungen of the
Berlin Academy for 1906.
That the greatest caution is necessary in arguing from the presence of
eo-called :IEoliths" in the Egyptian gravels is shown by a paper in which
M. Boul£ gives photographs of the chipped " Eoliths" produced from flints
freshly dug from the chalk by the washing mills of cement works, the