substantial books, have been published during the past year. M. H.
Maspero, whose name is a sufficient passport to any branch of Egyptology,
has written a dissertation on the finances of Egypt under the Ptolemies.19
It contains a summary of the sources of imperial revenue (rent of royal
lands, monopolies, taxes of various kinds, customs, and excise), and a
statement of the organization of the finance administration in the third
century b.c., with the changes introduced in the second century. The de-
scriptions (which are largely based on the Tebtunis papyri) are brief, and do
not go very deep; but the book will serve as a useful handbook to students
of the subject. In his introduction, M. Maspero argues against the existence
of any private property in land in Egypt, which seems hard to reconcile
with the division of land into royal, priestly, and private (J3u<n\ncq, lepii,
ISicoriKi]); and in his table of the various kinds of artabas he assigns
definite sizes to them without indicating that there is any uncertainty
on this subject, and gives the name of So-^ikov to several of them to
which it is not assigned in the papyri. The book must therefore be
used with a certain amount of caution, and not regarded as an exhaustive
or final treatment of the subject.
Dr. J. H. Moulton has re-cast the articles written by him for the
Expositor in 1904, with large additions, into a book which is intended
to serve as prolegomena to a new Grammar of New Testament Greek,
based upon his father's well-known and standard edition of Winer. The
present volume contains a survey of our present knowledge of Hellenistic
Greek, and of the relation to it of the language of the New Testament,
on which so much light has been thrown by the publications of Greek
papyri and by the works of Deissmann, Thumb, Schwyzer, and others.
It contains the results of an immense amount of original work, and will
be a leading authority on its' subject for a long time to come. English
readers especially have reason to be grateful to Dr. Moulton for a book
which gives them the latest results in a department of philology which has
been chiefly worked abroad, hut in which they are materially interested.
A shorter treatise, and on a subject which interests fewer people, has
been published by M. L. Boulard,-1 of the University of Paris. It is
a juristic study of the cases of delegation of the trial of law-suits as
practised in Roman Egypt, and is concerned with the technical point
whether the instructions transmitted by the delegating judge to his deputy
are to be regarded as "formulae" of the same character as those employed
in the ordinary civil procedure of Roman law, which were governed by
stereotyped rules; or, in other words, whether the use of the "formula"
was applicable to the "extraordinary procedure" (cognitio extra ordinem)