Pbogeess of Egyptology.
in force in llie provinces. In opposition to Gradenwitz and Mitteis,
M. Boulard comes to the conclusion that these instructions were analogous
to rescripts rather than to "formulae/' beiDg arbitrary in their character,
and depending solely on the will of the delegating judge.
The second volume of Dittenberger's Orientis Graeci Inscriptiones
Selectae 33 contains 70 selected inscriptions relating to Eoman Egypt, and
(in an appendix) 20 relating to Ptolemaic Egypt. The latter are taken
from Strack's articles in the Archiv. Prof. Dittenberger's method of
editing inscriptions in his admirable volumes of selections is too well
known to need either description or commendation.
The miscellaneous articles which have to be noticed this year are fewer
than usual. Dr. Wessely has published 23 a short note on the date of
Heroninus, of whose correspondence a few specimens have been printed by
Vitelli and others. The bulk of it, as already stated, is at Florence; a few
letters and documents from the same collection are in the British Museum
and elsewhere. Wessely and Breccia show, from documents accessible to
them, that some, at any rate, of the dates belong to the reign of Gallienus
(including those of Valerian and Macrinus); and so far there is nothing to
prove that any of them fall outside these limits (a.d. 254—268). Prof.
Smyly 24 has written a short note on the relation of the Macedonian to the
Egyptian calendar, showing that Epiphanes established an identification of
them, whereby the Macedonian Dystrus was equated with Thoth, between
197 and 187 b.c., which lasted at least until 165. In the course of the
next half-century this equation was abandoned, and in 118 we find the
later system established, which was the only one previously known to us, in
which Thoth was identified with Dius.
In the sphere of law, an elaborate examination of the system of leases of
land has been published by Gentilli,25 with a fall analysis of the formulas
employed in the papyri. Another treatise bearing on the same subject, by
'Waszynski,30 I have not as yet been able to see. In grammar, in
addition to Dr. Moulton's important work, Dr. W. Kuhring3'' has written
a dissertation on some noteworthy uses of the prepositions in Greek papyri.
Prof. Gardthausen has undertaken a fresh survey of the history of Greek
tachygraphy,28 the newer materials for which have mainly come from Egypt.
M. Jacob 30 has published a palaeographical study of the earliest uncial
writing (i.e. that of the third century b.c.), accompanied by enlarged repro-
ductions of the alphabets of the Timotheus, the Artemisia papyrus, and the
Petrie Plato. The interests of palaeography are also served by three plates
in the recent part of the New Palaeographical Society.30 Two of these
give (t'<>r the first time) a complete facsimile of the papyrus of the