Progress of Egyptology.
inscriptions and art which bear upon the cult of the Virgin.13 The Imma-
culate Conception is, he holds, as clearly accepted as in the Greek Church.
The " Letter from Heaven," as to the observance of Sunday, is as yet
missing from Coptic literature, owing doubtless to chance. For among
the oriental versions edited by Bittxer,43 the Arabic is represented by at
least one text (Vatican 536) explicitly claiming to be from the Coptic,
while ductus, paginatiou and glosses confirm its Egyptian origin.
A photograph of the interesting Festal Letter, Grenfell and Hunt's
Greek Papyri II, 163, is given by the New Palaeographical Society.11, The
date to which it is assigned is not unassailable. Why need it be of
"orthodox" origin? Monophysites, too, prayed for the reigning powers,
sometimes (I think) in just such phraseology.
I hear from M. Chassinat that the fine Shenoute MS. of the French
Institute at Cairo which he is publishing, should be issued in the spring.
5. History, Legends.—De Kicci shows that the third of the Alexan-
drine bishops, Abilios, may have been a freedman of the prefect Avillius
Flaccus, a.d. 32-37, or the son of one.45
That much of value as to pagan Egypt might be gathered from Clement
of Alexandria was obvious, and Deirer has made a useful collection of the
evidence, classed under Clement's references to the ancient writing, to
symbolism, books, religion, and history.40
F. Prat describes at length the doctrines of Origen and their fate, down
to the fifth council of Constantinople.4''
Sickixg writes4S upon Alexandrine church history to the beginning of
the 5th century, with special reference to Cyril and Hypatia, Theophilus
Mahe aims at showing *9 that the anathemas, presented in 430 by Cyril
to Nestorius for subscription, and their refutation by the Antiochene
party, both display a Christology really orthodox, divergent chiefly in
Kingsley's Hypatia is the subject of an interesting article by von
Schubert,50 who examines his treatment of the authorities and concludes
that the story adheres very closely to them. .
Butler's Lausiac History has been very favourably reviewed by Hilgen-
feld51 and Funk;53 also by Plenkers,53 who at the same time criticizes
other recent publications relating to early monasticisin (Bidez, Besse,
Lucius, Leipoldt, Schiwietz).
But the most remarkable views on this subject are those in Keitzen-
stein's latest and very suggestive book.51' He regards early Christian
missionary tales (apostolic, monkish) as imitated from the preceding