astronomical reasons for doubting whether it can be the heliacal rising of
the star. A change here would overthrow all the astronomical dating in
Egyptian history. Rec. de Travaux, xxxi. 106.
Steindorff has writteu an elaborate and interesting memoir on the
Egyptian nomes and their political development. He considers that the
symbols of the nomes are not tribal badges, but simply names: they often
have a direct geographical meaning, while in other cases the name of the
nome seems derived from that of the principal city, or the local deity, or
some famous mythological event. He also rejects the view that the nomes
represent tribal districts, preferring to see in them administrative divisions.
He traces the history of the nomes as far as possible from the earliest
times to the Ptolemaic age, and points out that the Thebais is a very
ancient geographical division, but that Middle Egypt was not an adminis-
trative division before the Roman age. Abh. d. K. Sachsischen Gesellscha/t
d. Wissenschaften, xxvii. 863.
Captain Lyons has written a bulky report on The Cadastral Survey of
Egypt 1892-1907, with a chapter in which are noted the available records
of ancient methods of surveying in Egypt.
In Man, 1908, no. 71, Petrie illustrates the terra-cotta figures and heads
which he has found at Memphis representing different races of the Persian
Europe. An able and informing sketch of Minoan civilisation and its
connexion with Egypt and Palestine has been written by H. E. Hall. He
looks for the origins of Cretan civilisation to Africa rather than to the
north. As an instance of the interchange of ideas he states that in his
opinion Egypt borrowed the spiral from Crete about the end of the Old
Kingdom (= Early Minoan III.), while the glazing of pottery was
borrowed from Egypt by Crete, yet the former probably took over
polychrome glaze from Crete again. P.S.B.A. xxxi. 135, 221.
Keftiu is probably Caphtor modified by a foreign tongue. Spiegelberg,
O.L.Z. xi. 426.
Following up the suggestion of Dr. Apostolides that the section on the
Pyramid Builders in the Egyptian History of Herodotus has been accident-
ally misplaced, Petrie shows that the History can be divided by a unit,