front of one superstructure there were eight of these pillars, all close
together, and on different levels of drift sand, showing that they were not
erected simultaneously. Perhaps one was built on the occasion of each
interment, for remains of several skeletons were found in every
tomb. Dr. MacIver makes mention of similar pillars in Kara nog
(text), p. 13.
"The other tomb consisted of a rectangular substructure with vaulted
roof built in a pit. Admittance was gained by a low doorway in the west
end, which was reached originally by a small, and now much denuded,
well. This doorway was still sealed up with bricks, the thieves having
broken in through the roof. The space above the roof was filled in with
debris to the surface level. The superstructure consisted of a rectangular
enclosure of low brick walls exactly outlining the concealed mouth of the
pit. Such tombs, Mr. Firth tells me, are typical of the end of the C-group
period, at one time thought to be contemporary with the commencement of
the Xllth Dynasty. The objects,* however, found in the tomb were similar
to those found in the other four, and are suggestive of the intermediate
period between the Middle and New Kingdoms. The tomb contained seven
skeletons extended on the back (?), heads west. They had been laid in
painted wooden coffins of which there were still a few traces, consisting of
scraps of decayed wood and paint. Also on the bodies were fragments of
gilded and painted plaster masks. The type of tomb is possibly due to
native Nubian influence reasserting itself after the break up of the Middle
" By clearing along the inner and outer face of the west wall of the
' Inner Fortification,' I discovered the turn of the south wall, which I
uncovered for several metres to make sure that it runs straight on. It
was buttressed like the north and west walls. The south-west corner
formed a large bastion like the corresponding north-west corner.
" Besides making the necessary additions to the plans, I took about
eighty photographs consisting of several views of the site, individual tombs
during and after excavation, burials with the accompanying objects in
position, and finally a series of groups of the various types of pottery
found in cemetery ' K.'
"My time was fully occupied, as the funds at my disposal were only
sufficient for five weeks' work, during which everything had to be com-
pletely finished and the site tidied up."
* Among them were some of the bottle-vases mentioned above, the rest were found
in one of the rock tombs.