Progress of Egyptology.
printed in Proc. Soc. Ant. xxiii. 217. In the northern part the population
was too poor and scanty to build churches of any pretension; southward,
beyond the Third Cataract, the bad quality of the stone and the use of
burnt brick caused the complete ruin of the churches by later inhabitants.
G. S. Mileham of the Philadelphia Expedition with Dr. Bandall-
MacIver has written an interesting and well-illustrated monograph on the
Churches in Lower Nubia as far as the Second Cataract, showing that they
had a special plan and architectural character.
Maspero notes the survival in Nubia of a kind of canoe or raft, flat with
upturned prow, and made of logs or of durra stems, which is figured in the
scenes of the New Empire. It seems to be that named ramus by Burck-
hardt. Ann. x. 138. Legend to explain the name Sorosnarti of an island
at the south end of the Bab Kalabsha. ib. xi. 156. Moslem graffiti in the
Kibla of the ruined church at Ibrim. ib. 160. Vines and fig-trees surviving
from old plantations at Aniba. ib. 161.
A pupil of Professor Meinhoff, Dr. Westermann, in Die Sudan-Spr ache
treats Nubian as one of a belt of allied languages running from the west
uninterruptedly across the centre of the continent to the Nile with outliers
beyond, but not including the Fula group in the west.
In the Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute there are several
papers on the Southern Sudan; the most interesting for archaeological
questions seem to be C. G. Seligmann's papers, the physical characters of
the Nuba of Kordofan, xl. 505 (see also Mrs. Seligmann's valuable Note
on the Language of the Nubas of Southern Kordofan in Zeitschrift fur
Kolonialspraclien, i. 167); on a neolithic site found by him near a perma-
nent water hole at the foot of a rocky hill projecting out of the plain of the
Gezira south of Khartum, ib. 209.
Philology and Palaeogkaphy.
The progress of the Worterbuch in 1910 left the MS. of the letter \\
finished and about a quarter of -—1 The former comprises no less than
1344 words, and one of these -=s=- has to be treated under 550 headings,
and two other words together under 330 headings. The Nubian expedi-
tion finished its task of photographing and squeezing inscriptions for the
Worterbuch. Erman, Sitzb. 1911, p. 97.
Littmann illustrates the assimilating effect of Ain in Egyptian by
reference to Semitic languages, A.Z. xlvii. 62, and shows Semitic parallels
to the verbal-adjective ending ni. ib. 167.