Progress of Egyptology.
weighs over 70 tons, it will be replaced in position as a fellow monument
with the great colossus. A multitude of lesser remains cannot be noticed
" At Heliopolis the plan of the great temple enclosure has been traced,
and the eastern gate found. This enclosure was Eamesside, and the walls
partly ran over an earlier fortress of the same type as the Hyksos camp
at Tell el Yehudiyeh—an earthen bank over 100 feet thick, without any
entrance through it. An area adjoining the great obelisk was cleared,
yielding two dozen blocks of another obelisk, carved by Tahutmes III., and
appropriated by Eameses II. Many pieces of sculptures were also found.
Work will be continued both here and at Memphis.
" At Qukneh the cemetery of the Xlth Dynasty was cleared, yielding an
historical stele under Uah-ankh Antef, which mentions the subjugation of
the house of Khety at Abydos. The types of the pottery of this age were
fully worked out. The temple of Sankh-kara on the top of the mountain
was cleared; the fragments seem to show that it was his se^-festival
chapel, with a cenotaph and an Osiride statue of the king. A magnificent
burial of the XVIIth Dynasty, with unusual gold work and furniture, was
removed entire to Edinburgh. A new temple site was discovered of the
high-priest ISTebunnef, early in the reign of Eameses II.
" At Meydum the pyramid construction was examined, and the site of
the lower temple discovered. The tomb-chambers of Nefermaat and Atet,
which had never been entered since the burials, and the chamber of the
largest mastaba, were all opened. The two former showed that the bodies
had been violently wrecked by the workmen who closed the chambers.
The great mastaba is one of the most splendid pieces of tomb architecture,
finished before the pyramid of Seneferu, and rivalling the early pyramids
" At Tarkiian, forty miles south of Cairo, a large cemetery has been
found of Dynasties 0 and I. The objects in it are in extraordinary
preservation, woodwork, baskets, and linen being still quite fresh and firm.
About 200 good group-tombs have been found, beside a multitude of
others of less importance. The reigns of two are fixed, Warmer and an
earlier king Ka, both of whose tombs are at Abydos. Their long series of
pottery (350 varieties), and of stone (250 varieties), have enabled the
changes during this age to be closely followed, using the dated material
from Abydos as a guide. It is thus possible to translate all Dr. Junker's
results from Turah into the same notation, and unite the whole in a
single exposition of the period, with a complete corpus of pottery and
stone. Much smaller material throws light on the civilization of the