lections are also illustrated. They come from widely separated localities
in the Persian Empire—Egypt, Asia Minor, Bahylon, Susa, and Persepolis,
and the names range from Darius I. to Artaxerxes (I. ?); but they all
appear to he made of Egyptian material, arragonite, and in one case
granite. In an appendix he discusses the Egyptian spellings of
Achaemenid names. A.Z. xlix. 69.
On Mithra in an Egyptian inscription from Palestine. Buechaedt,
O.L.Z. xv. 153, cf. Max Mullee, ib. 252. His Altkanaanaischen
Fremdworte is reviewed by Max Muller, O.L.Z. xv. 71.
On a cylinder with Syrian designs and cartouche of Menkheperre,
apparently found at Mitrahineh. Chassinat, Bull. viii. 145.
Professor Sachau has edited the Aramaische Papyri und Ostraka from
Elephantine in the Berlin Collection, Spiegelberg contributing to the
interpretation of the Egyptian names; the documents were mostly
excavated by Eubensohn in 1907, and form by far the most important
collection from that rich source which now it is to be feared is almost, if
not quite, exhausted. Of the resulting reviews and literature the fol-
lowing have come under the Editor's notice:
Ungnad has made a handy edition of the principal texts from
Elephantine for students. Aramaische Papyrus aus Elephantine.
Ed. Meyer has written a little book in which he points out the
historical and literary bearings of this great find, Der papyrus-fund von
Elephantine. He also examines the monetary system, the organization of
the Persian dominion in Egypt under which the principal officers were
Persian, the popular religion of the Jews, and the establishment of the
festival of the Passover by imperial decrees, this last having the great
historic effect of uniting the Jews by means of a common observance
throughout the Persian empire. Zu den aramdischcn Papyri von Elephan-
tine in Sitzb. Berlin Acad. 1911, p. 1026.
Maspero relates the history of the short-lived Jewish colony of
Elephantine. Rev. Arch. xix. 415.
Spiegelberg identifies further Egyptian names. O.L.Z. xv. 1.
Eeviews by Perles, O.L.Z. xiv. 497, xv. 54; Sciiwally, ib. xv. 160;
and suggestions by Barth, ib. xv. 10, and Buechler, ib. xv. 126.
Lidzbarski gives a long review, proposing many emendations of the
edition, Eph. f. Sem. Epigr. iii. 238; and republishes the collection of
sixty-three jar-labels, with many improved readings, Spiegelberg con-
tributing. The inscriptions on these are very brief, consisting chiefly
of proper names, and they are written in Phoenician more often than in
Aramaic. Egyptian gods commonly occur in the compounds, yet the