Progress of Egyptology.
by Coptic workmen brought by Musa (v. last Report, 76), see 182 signs of
their workmanship in fragmentary glass vessels dug up at Medina Az-
Zahra, near Cordova.
I am told that an article183 by Kippel on Bedouin "Folklore also contains
references to that of the Copts.
The new volume183a of Hastings' Encyclopaedia contains short articles
by H. J. Lawlor on Confirmation in the Egyptian Church and by H. E.
Hall on Coptic Demons and Spirits (chiefly on the magical names in
Gnostic charms). More important are the articles by the late P. D. Scott-
Moncrieff (v. last Report, 75) on Death and the disposal of the dead
among the Copts (dealing mainly with the survival of heathen customs
into Christian Egypt); and the long article on the Coptic Church. This
last is very full in its history up to the Council of Chalcedon, but after
that somewhat scanty. There is a careful account of the semi-pagan
syncretism so strong in early Christian Egypt, of Gnosticism, and of the
A picture184 of the Coptic and Abyssinian bishops seated with the
Bishop of London (on the occasion of the consecration of the new cathedral
at Khartoum) shows very well their large cope-like vestments.
An article by G. Papamchael on the [Melchite] Church of Alex-
andria in the eighteenth century throws some light on a period of which
we know very little. An anonymous writer describes184b its present
position in Egypt.
Cyril Macarius, sometime Patriarch of the Uniat Copts, has been leading
a troubled life for some years, and his flock have been divided into factions
(v. last Report, 76). He appears last winter to have declared his
allegiance to the Orthodox Greek Church of Alexandria, but almost
immediately changed his mind, sailed for Borne, and retracted his con-
version. He now asks 185 to be allowed to live the rest of his life in
retreat, devoted to the studies which he loves, so that there is reason to
hope for further literary work from his pen.
The present grievances of the Copts are put in convenient book form186
by Kyriakos Mikhail. Professor Sayce contributes a short preface,
A. J. Butler an introduction, Mrs. Butcher a short sketch of Coptic Church
History, and John Ward a brief account of the new organization in
England planned by the Copts to keep the British public informed as to
Egyptian events, and generally to awaken interest in their history and
present condition. There has been a not unsympathetic review187 by
E.A.E.—B., who compares the complaint of the Copts as to their treatment
in the civil service with the similar agitation in India.