Instytut Historii Sztuki <Posen> [Hrsg.]
Artium Quaestiones — 22.2011

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TADEUSZ J. ŻUCHOWSKI

needed, where representation could be accomplished. Particular empha-
sis was put on the isolation of the ruler, his theatrical presentation, and
the time at which the presentation took place. For these reasons cere-
moniał structures were based on acts repeated in the calendar cycle and
on acts of unspecitied interval of iterativity. As a result, ceremoniał was
inscribed in the naturał cycle of days, weeks, months, and seasons. In
papai ceremoniał the liturgical year was taken into account as well.io
Because of their diversity, acts of unspecitied interval, such as funerals,
audiences, and nominations, required very precise ceremoniał instruc-
tions.
A distinctive feature of papai ceremoniał was (and is) the inevitable
contiguity of many acts with liturgy. Such acts included coronation, pub-
lic blessings, posseso, and others. There is often no clear-cut distinction
between the two zones of representation: the zonę of liturgy and the zonę
of ceremonialA Like Byzantine ceremony, papai ceremony was close to
liturgy, which endowed it with the element of immutability liturgy pos-
sessedA As the papai ceremoniarius Agostino Patrizii states, ceremoniał
has something divine about itA In ceremoniał papai acts the two zones
of representation are united, while at the same time the immutability of

Berns/Rahn, op. cit. (cf. the notę 2), p. 656-657. The spatial existence of ceremoniał is ex-
tended by insignia and movement. Its extensions are the throne, attire, ambassador, etc.
The court becomes its part (corpzzs prżziczpzs) and is reduced to and personified by one
person; see also Dzs/ozre de /a zae przuee (further abbrev.: HVP), dir. Philippe Arles/
Georges Duby, vol. 1, Paris 1985, p. 337, 380; M. Cary/ H. Hayes Scullard, Dzze/e Dzyzrzzz.
Od ezasózo zzajdazozzzezszyc/z do Dozzs/azz/yzza (A history of Romę. Down to the Reign of
Constantine ), vol. 2, Warszawa 1992, p. 384.
i" Berns/Rahn, op. cit., (cf. the notę 2), p. 658-659, Michael McCormick, Azza/y^zzzp
zzzzperza/ cerezzzozzzes, in: „Jahrbuch der Ósterreichischen Bizantinistik", 35, 1985, p. 1-20,
p. 11-13; M. de Ferdinandy, Dze //zea/ra/zsc/ze Redezz/zzzzp des spazzżsc/zezz Ro/zerezzzozzże//s
Wazser Dar/s V., „Archiv ftir Kulturgeschichte", 47, 1965, p. 306-320, esp. p. 306-308.
ii PeaZ/eucozz /dr Azz/zde zzzzd CArzs/ezz/zzzzz, Lieferung 121, [entry:] Hofzeremoniel,
sp. 2; M. Dykmans, Le cezuzzzozzza/ popa/. De /a /za dzz zzzoyezz ape & /o, rezzazssazzce,
vol. 1, Bruxelles/Rome 1977, p. 34-35 „crdzzzarżz/zz? es zzzz reezzeż/ d'Ord/zzes. Dzz zzzz sezzs
speczez/, /'Ord/zzazzu es/ ee/zzz des rep/es pozzr /a serze des o/fzces, aoec zzze/pż/ e/ sazzs /or-
zzzzz/es cozup/e/es... L7dee de 'ceznzzzozz/e' appor/e pzze/ęzze c/zose de p/zzs Ażera/zpzze e/ azzssz
de p/zzs /arpezzzezz/ ozzoer/ azzx pra/żpzzes ddzze cozzrd
i^ Characteristically, both Byzantine and papai ceremonials are inscribed in the li-
turgical year; see M. Dykmans, WOezzzzre de Pa/rżzz Pzcco/ozzzzzzż ozz /e cerezzzozzza/ papo/ /a
prezzzzere rezzazssazzce, vol. 1-2, Citta del Vaticano 1980-1982 (further abbrev. Patri-
zi/Dykmans); Cozzs/azz/żzzz Porpyropezzż/ż zzrzpera/orzs De Cer/zrzozzzzs Azz/ae Pżzazz/żzzae /z/zrż
dzzo, grecae et latinae e recensionae Io. Iac. Reiskii, vol. 1-2, Bonnae 1829-30, Corpus
Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae.
13 „Cer/zzzozz/a zzz/zz/ a/zzzd es/ gzzazzi Aozzor dedż/zzs Deo azz/ /zozzz/zzzPzzs Dezzzzz", quoted
after Patrizi/Dykmans (cf. the notę 12), vol. 1, p. 31*.
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