Papers of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens — 5.1886-1890

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To return to the ordinary crowns; the three terms—giver, cause,
receiver—are regularly in this order, and, as any of them can be omit-
ted, the following cases occur in which the terms do not deviate from
the regular order, gcr, gc, gr, cr, c, g, r. In regard to frequency, g
stands at the head with 122 instances; then r with 51; gr with 38 ;
gc with 17 ; gcr with 15; c with 9 ; and cr with 4. Besides these
cases of regular order, a few irregularities are found: there are 6 cases
of grc, 6 of rg, and one of rc. The exceptional form grc occurs four
times on certain Parian inscriptions; here the term c is represented
usually by the phrase icoa/iiais ftiwo-avra, so that this order seems to
be rather a local peculiarity. One of the instances of rg is from ^
sepulchral inscription at Smyrna, but all the other exceptions to the
usual order are Attic.

Two bodies may act in unison in bestowing a crown; as in Bull, tie
corr. helUn., iv, 433, where the words o Sa/io? | ical ol j 'Ycofiaiot, appear
in one of the crowns : ol e<£?7/3oi \ koX ol veoi, C.I.G., 3112, is another
example. A psephism of the bottle and demos is also often represented
by one crown. More rarely such a decree has two crowns, one inclos-
ing i) fiov\i], the other o S>}/io?, as in Mittheil., viii, 211 (pl. x-8) and
probably in C.I.A., n, 1347. The form in which both words are used
in a single crown is especially frequent in ephebic decrees, but it
occurs as early as the votive inscription relating to Demetrios Phalc-
reus C.I.A., n, 1217 (in part pl. x-9). When both words belong to oue
crown, they may stand inside or outside of it, according to convenience.
The custom, however, is to place them within; for, putting aside
the cases where the position varies on the same stone, the words
boule and demos occur 25 times inside the crown, out of a total of 32
examples. Sometimes the two words are joined by the copula ical, but
the omission of it seems to be the older and the Attic usage. C.I.A., ii,
1217 (315/12 b.c.), ii, 338 (soon after 281 b. c), and thirteen other
examples of ■>) /3ou\?) 6 S^/ao? include eight inscriptions belonging to the
S A class. On the other hand, the earliest approximately dated exam-
ple of 7} fiovXr) ical 6 Sv'j/ao? is C.I.G., 2270 (soon after 167 b. C.)j and,
of sixteen other instances of it, only two belong to the 5 A class; While
three eases of the C-shapcd sigma occur among them. Moreover, more
than half of the cases of?; /3ov\r) ical 6 S?)/io? are supplied by Paros,
Aigiua,and other islands; while i) /SouX?) 6 8j)/ao? is confined toAttika.

When the demos alone is the giver, 6 $rjfto<; is placed with great reg-
ularity within the wreath. In only 14 cases out of 155 does it lie
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