REFERENCE TO THE STAGE QUESTION.
The chorus in the Greek Drama, its position and external
functions, has formed the basis of the investigations1 in the la3t
decade that have contributed in no small degree to the overthrow
of the traditional belief in a high stage for actors during the
classical period. Those who at first opposed the entire theory of
Dr. Dorpfeld now concede, almost without exception, that the
theatre of the fifth century placed no restraint upon the free and
constant intermingling of actors and chorus.2 But the question
has by no means reached its solution. Vitruvius remains, and,
until fresh evidence has been gathered from literary sources which
shall conclusively refute or explain him, he will probably continue
to remain, the stronghold of many who have not felt the over-
whelming force of the evidence of the ruins.
The theories formulated by Mr. Gardner and Prof. Christ rest
'HiSPKEX, de iheairo atiico, Diss. Bonn, 1884; Wilamowttz, in Hermes, 21,
607 if; White, in Harvard Studies, 1891, 159 11'.; Capps, in Trans. Am. Phil.
Ass., 1891, 1 ff.; Bodensteiner, in Jahrb. f. class. Phil., 19*™ Suppl., 1893, 639 ff.;
Pickard, in Am. Jour. Phil., 1893, 68 ff.; Weissmann, Die scenische Auffuhrung
dergnech. Dramen, Miinchen, 1893 ; Wecklein, Sitzungsber. d. bayr. Akad., 1893,
2 The suggestion of a low stage for the fifth century first came from Haiqti, Attic
Theatre (1889), 158, and has since found favor with many, either in its original or
in a modified form. See Gardner, in Jour. Hell. Stud., Suppl. J., (1892 i ; Weil
injur, des Sav., 1893, 603; CriRlST, in Sitzungsber. d. bayr. Akad., 1804,1 ff.;
Oedmichen, in Woch. f. klass. Phil., 1894, 761 ; A. MtiLLER, in Perl. phil. \7och.t
1894, 1456; Navarre, Dionysos, p 95. For the view of Christ, who at first fiirorud
the now theory, see Class. Rev., 1895, 133. Other compromises hare hern nTorod
by Dvei.. in Jour. Hell. Stud., 1891, 356 ff., Earle, Report of Arch. Inst, of Am,.,
1892-3, 611, and in the Introduction to his edition of the Alcestis, and Pau'.skn,
Grekiska teatcrn, Goteborg, 1894.