The Artist's Assistant, In the Study and Practice of Mechanical Sciences: Calculated for the Improvement of Genius. Illustrated with Copper-Plates — Birmingham, [ca. 1785]

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i9S THE ARTIST'S ASSISTANT.

off, rub the work well with the oil-rubber, and wipe
the plate clean; then proceed to finifh it with the
graver, according to the following directions:

Of engraving—The tools neceffary for engraving
are, the oil-rubber, burnifher, fcraper, oil-ftor.es,
needles, and ruler, already mentioned to be ufed in
etching ; alfo gravers, compaffes, and a fand bag.

Gravers are of two forts, f^uare and lozenge :
three of each fort fhould be provided. The firft is
ufed in cutting the broader ftrokes, the other for the
fainter and more delicate. No graver fhould exceed
the length of five inches and a half, the handle in-
cluded, excepting for ftraight lines.

The fand bag, or cufhion, is ufed to lay the plate
on, for the conveniency of turning it about. The
oil-flone, muft be of the Turkey fort.

Of whetting and tempering the graver.—As great
pains are required to whet the graver nicelv, particu-
larly the belly of it, care muft be taken to lay the
two angles of the graver, which are to be held next
the plate, flat upon the ftone, and rub them fteadily
till they are polifhed like a mirror, and till the bellv
rifes gradually above the plate, fo as that, when you
lay the graver flat upon it, you mayjuft perceive the
light under the point; otherwife it will dig into the
copper, and it will be impoffible to keep a point, or
execute the work with freedom. In order to this,
keep your right arm clofe to your fide, and place
the fore-finger of your left hand upon that part of the
graver which lies uppermoft on the ftone. When
this is done, in order to whet the face, place the flat
part of the handle in the hollow of your hand, with
the belly of the graver upwards, upon a moderate
flope, and rub the extremity, or face upon the ftone,

till
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