0.5

1 cm

32

A SEASON IN EGYPT.

thickness of the upper wall as preserved at the

gate, and ri the distance of the gate-face inside

the line of foundation from N.E. to N.W. corners,

there is 2o67±4 or ioo cubits of 20-67±.04 Thus

it is clear that the wall is merely an added feature

to the pyramid, and not made in any round numbers

in itself, as its outside comes to 568 cubits. The

idea of the gateway position seems to be to place

it so as to look southward, just clear of the east

face of the pyramid.

In height the change of slope occurs at 1857

inches from the pavement, or 90 cubits of 20-63,

and the upper part is 2277 inches high, or no

cubits of 2070; thus the whole pyramid was 200

cubits high.

The angles of slope at the lower half of the

larger pyramid is 55V low down, and S4°36' above

that. This seems as if planned on a rise of 10

with a base of 7, or one cubit three palms vertical for

every cubit horizontal; such a slope is 55°o'29".

If so, the base of this part will be 63 cubits for the

90 cubits vertical. The upper part being at 43°S',

seems to be planned on a rise of 14 on a base

of 15, or a cubit vertical for a cubit and two digits

horizontal; such a slope is 43°i'33". The small

pyramid is 44°34', and the northern large pyramid

is 44°36'; these are close to 450, but yet seem distinct;

and a slope 7 long on a base of 5, or one cubit of

slope on 5 palms horizontal, gives an angle of

44°34'4o". We see thus that all these three angles

are very closely explained by simple ratios; and

further, that these ratios all involve the division

of the cubit in the usual Egyptian way, with 7

palms.

The errors of workmanship are much greater than

those of the Great or Second Pyramid of Gizeh,

but rather less than that of the third pyramid. But

the errors of angle are the most conspicuous; the

sides being far more truly parallel than they are

square to one another. This, as well as the departure

from true north, shows a much lower capability] for

angular measurement than in the Great Pyramid

of Gizeh.

The cubit values given then by different parts

are:—

Large pyramid base, 360 cubits of 2072 + -oo6.

Small pyramid base, 100 n 20-646 + 005.

' Space around pyramid, 100 n . 20-67 + '°4-

Lower height of pyramid, 90 n 20-63.

Upper height of pyramid, no u 20-70.

Only the first two are really accurate data, and

they give a mean cuibt of 20'68±'03, with which

the other three examples well agree.

The azimuth of the step pyramid of Sakkara

was observed by eye on its rough core masonry,

as pointing to parts of the S. pyramid of Dahshur.

This resulted in showing it to be +4° 14' for E.,

and +4°28' for W. side; or mean 4°2i' E. of

true N.

CHAPTER VII.

THE EARLIEST COLUMN.

48. Behind one of the small pyramids at Gizeh,

on the eastern side of the great pyramid, is the

larger part of a fine tomb of a son of Khufu,

named Khufu-kha-f. This is therefore of the begin-

ning of the IVth dynasty, or within the first century

of dateable remains in Egypt. The tomb is now

heaped around with rubbish, which entirely covers

its ancient doorways; and the visitor descends by

jumping down into the outer chamber. This chamber

has been considerably cut about in process of hav-

ing an arched roof built into it, at about the time

of the XXVIth dynasty. The tomb had evidently

been partially despoiled before that, and was then

refitted and completed for later use. The inner

chamber has also had its walls continued up where

broken, and a new roof put on; the new work

being all plain stone, and the thin mortaring having

run down over the old sculpture. On either side

of a doorway in the inner chamber leading to the

serdab, is a column in low relief, represented as

supporting the lintel. This column is here care-

fully reproduced on PI. xxv., by measurements taken

from a paper squeeze. Its form is most striking when

we consider that it belongs to the very first age

of architecture, many centuries before the columns

of Beni Hasan. Here is a well formed base,

a slight taper of the column in rising from it,

an astragal at the top, and a spreading capital

which seems much like the prototype of the later

lotus flower capitals. The whole of the members

of a complete column are here, harmonious and well

designed; and this is of a time when even the

series of pyramids—the earliest known type of build-

ing—was but beginning its course.

49. What was the origin of this earliest column ?

In the same tomb, among the various articles of

luxury borne before the son of Khufu, is a stand

containing two wine jars; they are of a beautiful

form, with long spouts, probably of metal cut off flat

A SEASON IN EGYPT.

thickness of the upper wall as preserved at the

gate, and ri the distance of the gate-face inside

the line of foundation from N.E. to N.W. corners,

there is 2o67±4 or ioo cubits of 20-67±.04 Thus

it is clear that the wall is merely an added feature

to the pyramid, and not made in any round numbers

in itself, as its outside comes to 568 cubits. The

idea of the gateway position seems to be to place

it so as to look southward, just clear of the east

face of the pyramid.

In height the change of slope occurs at 1857

inches from the pavement, or 90 cubits of 20-63,

and the upper part is 2277 inches high, or no

cubits of 2070; thus the whole pyramid was 200

cubits high.

The angles of slope at the lower half of the

larger pyramid is 55V low down, and S4°36' above

that. This seems as if planned on a rise of 10

with a base of 7, or one cubit three palms vertical for

every cubit horizontal; such a slope is 55°o'29".

If so, the base of this part will be 63 cubits for the

90 cubits vertical. The upper part being at 43°S',

seems to be planned on a rise of 14 on a base

of 15, or a cubit vertical for a cubit and two digits

horizontal; such a slope is 43°i'33". The small

pyramid is 44°34', and the northern large pyramid

is 44°36'; these are close to 450, but yet seem distinct;

and a slope 7 long on a base of 5, or one cubit of

slope on 5 palms horizontal, gives an angle of

44°34'4o". We see thus that all these three angles

are very closely explained by simple ratios; and

further, that these ratios all involve the division

of the cubit in the usual Egyptian way, with 7

palms.

The errors of workmanship are much greater than

those of the Great or Second Pyramid of Gizeh,

but rather less than that of the third pyramid. But

the errors of angle are the most conspicuous; the

sides being far more truly parallel than they are

square to one another. This, as well as the departure

from true north, shows a much lower capability] for

angular measurement than in the Great Pyramid

of Gizeh.

The cubit values given then by different parts

are:—

Large pyramid base, 360 cubits of 2072 + -oo6.

Small pyramid base, 100 n 20-646 + 005.

' Space around pyramid, 100 n . 20-67 + '°4-

Lower height of pyramid, 90 n 20-63.

Upper height of pyramid, no u 20-70.

Only the first two are really accurate data, and

they give a mean cuibt of 20'68±'03, with which

the other three examples well agree.

The azimuth of the step pyramid of Sakkara

was observed by eye on its rough core masonry,

as pointing to parts of the S. pyramid of Dahshur.

This resulted in showing it to be +4° 14' for E.,

and +4°28' for W. side; or mean 4°2i' E. of

true N.

CHAPTER VII.

THE EARLIEST COLUMN.

48. Behind one of the small pyramids at Gizeh,

on the eastern side of the great pyramid, is the

larger part of a fine tomb of a son of Khufu,

named Khufu-kha-f. This is therefore of the begin-

ning of the IVth dynasty, or within the first century

of dateable remains in Egypt. The tomb is now

heaped around with rubbish, which entirely covers

its ancient doorways; and the visitor descends by

jumping down into the outer chamber. This chamber

has been considerably cut about in process of hav-

ing an arched roof built into it, at about the time

of the XXVIth dynasty. The tomb had evidently

been partially despoiled before that, and was then

refitted and completed for later use. The inner

chamber has also had its walls continued up where

broken, and a new roof put on; the new work

being all plain stone, and the thin mortaring having

run down over the old sculpture. On either side

of a doorway in the inner chamber leading to the

serdab, is a column in low relief, represented as

supporting the lintel. This column is here care-

fully reproduced on PI. xxv., by measurements taken

from a paper squeeze. Its form is most striking when

we consider that it belongs to the very first age

of architecture, many centuries before the columns

of Beni Hasan. Here is a well formed base,

a slight taper of the column in rising from it,

an astragal at the top, and a spreading capital

which seems much like the prototype of the later

lotus flower capitals. The whole of the members

of a complete column are here, harmonious and well

designed; and this is of a time when even the

series of pyramids—the earliest known type of build-

ing—was but beginning its course.

49. What was the origin of this earliest column ?

In the same tomb, among the various articles of

luxury borne before the son of Khufu, is a stand

containing two wine jars; they are of a beautiful

form, with long spouts, probably of metal cut off flat