upside down and done right and left as a training
of the eye in measurement and proportion, for all
these examples are done without rule or measure
other than what is judged by the eye.
Advancing from the foregoing examples done
with the point of the chalk, I introduce later on
movements for study with the flat or side of the
chalk, comprising single-handed and double-
handed strokes, as in Fig. i, the broad and
narrow portions of the forms being obtained by
more' or less twisting of the chalk during the stroke.
This is a prelude to the study of ornamental de-
sign with brush and colour upon paper, and is a
useful method also in studying the characteristics
of botanical and other natural forms, both as to
outline and broad mass. Appreciation of form is
acquired more readily, perhaps, by considering
its mass than by merely thinking of its outline.
The remarkable facility in drawing possessed
by the Japanese is undoubtedly due to their early
training in the use of the brush without any
maul-stick or other rest for the hand, but with the
unrestrained movement of the whole arm. In
the constant daily practice of copying the charac-
ters of his native language with a brush and ink,
the Japanese child is learning to draw almost
imperceptibly, as Dr. Dresser in his book,
“Japan, its Art and Art Manufactures,” has so
well pointed out. Mr. Walter Crane, Mr. Lewis
F. Day, and other distinguished designers and
draughtsmen, have so strenuously advocated the
use of the brush that it is unnecessary to enlarge
now upon the advantages derivable therefrom,
but only to refer to the connecting link between
it and the blackboard drawing with flat chalk.
The high educational value of clay modelling
is so generally allowed that insistence upon
the fact seems unnecessary. Obviously it sup-
plies the best medium for expression of form,
whether simple or complex. In the observa-
tion of facts in nature and art, which it com-
pels, hand and eye are trained to mutual action
in modelling as in nothing else. Coinciden-
tally mental habits, discrimination, judgment,
thought, choice, are exercised and strengthened,
and the aesthetic sense cultivated and enlarged.
To detail the special application of clay
modelling will require another chapter.
Bimanual training undoubtedly has estim-
able influence upon whatever occupation or
vocation the student may follow in after life.
There is not a profession or industry unbene-
fited by its teaching, and for the artist and
craftsman it has special value. No more
needful or useful preliminary training for either
could be devised.
Letter to the editor
ON THE SUBJECT OF THE
FUTURE OF WOOD-EN-
Dear Sir,—Being still an engraver upon wood,
.1 was naturally much interested in the article in
your June issue that predicts the “ Future of Wood-
Engraving,” but have to differ from Mr. A. L. Baldry
upon several points.
I see no reason for thinking the great decay of
the art arose from the engraver allowing the designer
FIG. 6.—CURVE EXERCISES