Egypt Exploration Fund [Hrsg.]
Archaeological report: comprising the work of the Egypt Exploration Fund and the progress of egyptology during the year ... — 1893-1894

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Gk^co-Egyptian Antiquities.


vEgean civilization, is entirely European in origin, and was only super-
ficially orientalised by contact with Syria and Egypt; and the old idea,
that the primitive civilization of Greece was exclusively Egypto-
Babylonian, is now impossible to maintain. Keinach is inclined to pin
his faith to " une civilisation neolithique primitive, ayant rayonne en
eventail de l'Europe centrale ou de fEurope du Nord.'1

The results of the discoveries at Daphnes and Naukratis, which added
so largely to our material for the study of Ionian art, have perhaps
hitherto hardly been studied as they deserved. We may therefore all
the more welcome the stately volume devoted to this subject by
D. Mallet, Les premiers itablissements ties Grecs en Egypte (twelfth
memoir of the French Mission Archcologique at Cairo). First noticing
the different thalattocracies of the Mediterranean, leading up to that of
the Milesians, be takes Daphnas as a text for discussing the mercenaries
under Psammetichus and his successors : and Naukratis for that of the
Greek merchants in Egypt : after a detailed examination of the towns,
their commerce, industries, etc., he sums up in a final chapter the concep-
tion which the Greeks must have had of Egypt in the sixth century b.c.
The pottery of Daphna3 has been made the subject of an independent
study by F. Dummler, which was to have appeared some time back in
the Antilte Denkmdler of the German Institute, but for some cause it
has been hitherto delayed. Meanwhile the bulk of this pottery, and
some of that from Naukratis, has been described in vol. ii. of the
Catalogue of Vases in the British Museum, 1893.

Since Petrie's publication of mummy portraits in Hawara, Biahmu,
and Arsinoe, various treatises on this subject have appeared, notably
dealing with those of the Graf collection. The latest notice is one
by G. Ebers, Die Hellenislische Bildnisse aus dcr Fajuvi untersucht
und gewiirdigt, Leipzig, 1893. Closely connected with these mummy
portraits is a series of modelled portrait heads from mummies, of which
specimens have recently come for the first time into European museums.
In the Journal des Arts of December 31, 1892, an account is given
of four of these heads in the Louvre. They were found at El Khargeh,
the Oasis Magna, and are attributed by the writer to the Grasco-Oriental
population that inhabited the oasis not earlier than the time of Septimius
Severus. Modelled in the round in coloured gypsum, they occupy on
the cover of the sarcophagus the same place as the cedar-wood panels in
the Faiyum examples; and, like them, represent the dead person in a
very lifelike manner. The eyes are represented by a black and white
paste, consisting of a kind of enamel covered with a plaque of vitreous
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