Progress of Egyptology.
Ptahhetep (D. 62), Ateta (D. 63), User-neter (D. 1), Ptahshepses (unpub-
lished), and Ptahshepses (E. 2). For beauty and delicacy of work the
little inscription in the tomb of Ka-em-hest is perhaps the most remarkable,
but for decorative effect, for dignified simplicity, and for mastery of drawing
and technique the sculpture of Ptahhetep (D. 62) is unequalled at Saqqara.
It is unfortunately quite impossible to give any idea of the modelling of
the faces and figures by black and white facsimiles. Even photography is
not altogether satisfactory, as it exaggerates the inequalities of the stone
and the shadows, giving a coarse effect. The only medium for repro-
ducing these fine bas-reliefs so as to preserve all their beauty is water-
colour or pencil drawing. The tomb of User-neter, though much inferior
in artistic merit, is rich in archaeological interest. The north and south
walls show completely the rites for the dead : the deceased seated before a
table, the sacrifice of victims, the bearers of offerings, the piles of offerings,
the list of offerings, and the ceremony of libation and of offering incense.
" The translation of the inscriptions in these tombs has been kindly
undertaken by Dr. Sethe."
Abusir.—Dr. Borchardt has continued his excavations. (See below,
The expedition for the University of California, sent out at the expense
of Mrs. Hearst, has continued its work opposite Girgeh, and begun opera-
tions at G-izeh. Dr. Reisner reports as follows :—
'• We have had a very successful year, especially in Gizeh. We have
cleared to the IVth Dynasty level a large section of the cemetery west of
Lepsius 23. The earliest graves—small mud brick mastabas very like
those of the Illrd Dynasty—were found in a cemetei-y under the sand in
the wady of Lepsius 23. Other graves of a similar type were found on the
plateau above, in spaces not occupied by the stone mastabas. Of the latter
the earliest were laid out in a uniform plan in the time of Cheops. The
unoccupied spaces were utilized in the Vth Dynasty by mastabas with
independent sites and by additions to these earlier mastabas: the later
used stone from the earlier, and when the last mastabas, those of the end
of the Vth Dynasty, were built the older mastabas were in decay, the
present surface of decay being already formed. The last mastabas were
built on this surface. Then the drifting in of sand began. During the
Vlth and Vnth Dynasties the place was used for intrusive burials ; after
that it was covered with sand to almost its present depth, and was never
again used us a cemetery.
"We found twenty-six statues (thirty-three figures), six beautiful stelae
of the Cheops period, a number of ordinary door lintels and other inscribed