Progress of Egyptology.
officials named in the papyri brings comparative order into a quarter where
it was much needed.
A subject of juristic and social interest, the institution of marriage, is
studied by E. de Buggiero,41 who examines the evidence of the papyri with
regard to the marriage contract, the dowry, and divorce.
The financial organization of Egypt is discussed by Dr. Paul Meyer43
in an article dealing with the official known as the I'Sto? X0709. Meyer's
conclusions (which are summarized, with some important rectifications,
in his commentary on the Papyrus Cattaoui, mentioned above) are that
the SioiKTjrij<; in Alexandria was the one supreme financial authority in
Ptolemaic times, the office of the tSto? Ao'yo? being a subordinate department,
dealing mainly with property which fell to the crown by lapse or confisca-
tion; and this continued to be its functions until they were widened by
Severus, who united the t'Sto? A.670? (whose court had already dealt with
matters relating to the temples and the priests) with the high-priest of
Alexandria and Egypt. Otto, it may be observed, in the treatise
mentioned above (No. 39) treats them as identical throughout the Eoman
period. Both writers give lists of the known occupants of the office. In
another article,43 or rather series of notes, which should have been noticed
last year, Meyer discusses the bearing of several recently published texts
(Tebtunis papyri, Berlin papyri, inscriptions) on Ptolemaic history.
An inscription of the end of the third century b.c., containing a vote
in honour of the king and queen from the elders of the corporation of
bakers, serves as text to Trof. Strack for a discussion 11 on the organization
of guilds in Egypt under elders (irpeafivTepoi), which may have served as
models to the early Christian communities.
The Archiv contains several noteworthy articles. Naber43 continues
his notes on the juristic materials provided by the papyri; and the interests
of students of law are also considered in Gradenwitz's study 46 of the
jurisdiction of the cJirematistae, who roughly correspond to our justices of
the peace, being small local boards of quasi-amateur judges, with an
official clerk to assist them. Another legal article is that of Mitteis47 on
the emancipation of slaves by part-owners, which occurs in Oxyrhynchus
Pap. 716, where the guardians of three children emancipate two-thirds of a
slave belonging to them, the other third having been already emancipated
by the owner of it. In the department of economics we have an article by
Preisigke48 on the issues of corn from the state storehouses in the Fayum,
involving a new explanation of a class of receipts occurring on ostraka,
which has already been discussed by Grenfell and Hunt and Jouguet (see
last Report, No. 17). Grenfell and Hunt explained them as receipts given