Egypt Exploration Fund [Hrsg.]
Archaeological report: comprising the work of the Egypt Exploration Fund and the progress of egyptology during the year ... — 1909-1910

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Excavations aï Abydos.


the same ail along the river. There will be différences which may last
for centuries. Because in one place the flints are of better workmanship,
the pots of better waxe, or better painted, that will not mean différent
stages in that neolithie culture, especially it will not mean a chronological

Let us suppose furtlier that conquerors of a race kindred to the aborigines,
but with a more advanced civilisation and différent ideas about burial,
settle in the country. They will bury their dead according to their own
fashion ; probably they will occupy cemeteries of the aborigines ; but they
will not take possession of the whole country at once ; their influence will
not be felt of a sudden over the whole valley, and for générations the
aborigines will go on burying their dead as did their fathers perhaps in
the same cemetery as the conquerors.

I believe, therefore, that each place of some importance has its own
history, as to civilisation and culture. Unless there is positive proof
to the contrary, an object known to be of the IVth Dynasty at Memphis
may be of a very différent date at Aswân. How could the modifications
supposed to arise from a change in the dynasty spread through the country ?
by what channel did they reach the extremities, and how long did the
passage take ? Because another dynasty cornes to the throne at Memphis
or Thebes, what reason is there why a woman in a village should
change the beads of lier necklace and the pots in which she prépares
lier food ?

ïhis digression was necessary to explain the value and the interest of
the " mixed cemetery." I do not deny that in that cemetery there may
be really predynastic tombs, but there is no proof of it ; and what seems
to me the most ancient burial is the Egyptian tomb to which Mr. Peet
has given the number 21, and which was the only one found intact. It
consists of a rectangular shaft about 15 feet deep, on the S.E. side of which
opens a chamber that was hermetically closed by a well-built brick door.
The style of the tomb is that of the XIth Dynasty, several of which we
found at Deir el-Bahari.

After having removed the bricks of the door, we found a coffin which
had been rectangular, but which had been entirely destroyed by white
ants. Near the body on the left was a small offering table, with niches
for the vases used for religious cérémonies such as the " opening of the
mouth." ïhe little vases were close by, only the amulet called pcslicnlcaj",
often made of flint, which had its niche on the table, had disappeared.
Besides thèse were two sitting alabaster figures and a standing ivory figure.
Ail thèse objects are of purely Egyptian character. The form of the tomb
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